Amateur personal-Amateur ( film) - Wikipedia

Amateur or ham radios may serve as the one of the important means of telecommunication in case of natural disasters or other emergencies. Fully filled up Amateur Radio Examination Application form it will be available at www. Link S1. Pay order as Examination fee Amount will be mentioned in advertisement. Attested Copy of S.

Amateur personal

Amateur personal

Amateur personal

Amateur personal

Amateur personal

Although not an acronym, it is often mistakenly Amateur personal as "HAM" in capital letters. To perform such a dive one needs to take 4 to 6 cylinders under water, what is more, Amateur personal special helium breathing mixture and different specialized equipment. Amateurs therein must pass an examination to demonstrate technical knowledge, operating competence, and awareness of legal and regulatory requirements, in order to avoid interfering with other amateurs and other radio services. Archived from the original on 18 July Archived from the original on 6 March Tales of the Telegraph.

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Amateur radio , also known as ham radio , is the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport , contesting , and emergency communication.

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Amateur radio , also known as ham radio , is the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport , contesting , and emergency communication.

The term "amateur" is used to specify "a duly authorised person interested in radioelectric practice with a purely personal aim and without pecuniary interest;" [1] either direct monetary or other similar reward and to differentiate it from commercial broadcasting , public safety such as police and fire , or professional two-way radio services such as maritime, aviation, taxis, etc.

The amateur radio service amateur service and amateur-satellite service is established by the International Telecommunication Union ITU through the Radio Regulations.

National governments regulate technical and operational characteristics of transmissions and issue individual stations licenses with an identifying call sign. Prospective amateur operators are tested for their understanding of key concepts in electronics and the host government's radio regulations. Radio amateurs use a variety of voice, text, image, and data communications modes and have access to frequency allocations throughout the RF spectrum.

This enables communication across a city, region, country, continent, the world, or even into space. In many countries, amateur radio operators may also send, receive, or relay radio communications between computers or transceivers connected to secure virtual private networks on the Internet.

Amateur radio is officially represented and coordinated by the International Amateur Radio Union IARU , which is organized in three regions and has as its members the national amateur radio societies which exist in most countries.

According to an estimate made in by the American Radio Relay League , two million people throughout the world are regularly involved with amateur radio. The origins of amateur radio can be traced to the late 19th century, but amateur radio as practiced today began in the early 20th century.

As with radio in general, amateur radio was associated with various amateur experimenters and hobbyists. Amateur radio enthusiasts have significantly contributed to science , engineering , industry , and social services. Research by amateur operators has founded new industries, [4] built economies, [5] empowered nations, [6] and saved lives in times of emergency. The term "ham" was first a pejorative term used in professional wired telegraphy during the 19th century, to mock operators with poor Morse code sending skills " ham-fisted ".

The use of "ham" meaning "amateurish or unskilled" survives today in other disciplines "ham actor". The amateur radio community subsequently began to reclaim the word as a label of pride, [14] and by the midth century it had lost its pejorative meaning.

Although not an acronym, it is often mistakenly written as "HAM" in capital letters. The many facets of amateur radio attract practitioners with a wide range of interests. Many amateurs begin with a fascination of radio communication and then combine other personal interests to make pursuit of the hobby rewarding.

Some of the focal areas amateurs pursue include radio contesting , radio propagation study, public service communication , technical experimentation , and computer networking. Amateur radio operators use various modes of transmission to communicate. The two most common modes for voice transmissions are frequency modulation FM and single sideband SSB.

FM offers high quality audio signals, while SSB is better at long distance communication when bandwidth is restricted. Radiotelegraphy using Morse code , also known as "CW" from " continuous wave ", is the wireless extension of landline wired telegraphy developed by Samuel Morse and dates to the earliest days of radio.

Although computer-based digital modes and methods have largely replaced CW for commercial and military applications, many amateur radio operators still enjoy using the CW mode—particularly on the shortwave bands and for experimental work, such as earth-moon-earth communication , because of its inherent signal-to-noise ratio advantages.

Morse, using internationally agreed message encodings such as the Q code , enables communication between amateurs who speak different languages. It is also popular with homebrewers and in particular with "QRP" or very-low-power enthusiasts, as CW-only transmitters are simpler to construct, and the human ear-brain signal processing system can pull weak CW signals out of the noise where voice signals would be totally inaudible.

A similar "legacy" mode popular with home constructors is amplitude modulation AM , pursued by many vintage amateur radio enthusiasts and aficionados of vacuum tube technology.

Following changes in international regulations in , countries are no longer required to demand proficiency. Modern personal computers have encouraged the use of digital modes such as radioteletype RTTY which previously required cumbersome mechanical equipment. Specialized digital modes such as PSK31 allow real-time, low-power communications on the shortwave bands. EchoLink using Voice over IP technology has enabled amateurs to communicate through local Internet-connected repeaters and radio nodes, [20] while IRLP has allowed the linking of repeaters to provide greater coverage area.

Automatic link establishment ALE has enabled continuous amateur radio networks to operate on the high frequency bands with global coverage. Other modes, such as FSK using software such as WSJT , are used for weak signal modes including meteor scatter and moonbounce communications. Fast scan amateur television has gained popularity as hobbyists adapt inexpensive consumer video electronics like camcorders and video cards in PCs. Linked repeater systems, however, can allow transmissions of VHF and higher frequencies across hundreds of miles.

Repeaters can also be linked together by using other amateur radio bands , landline , or the Internet. Amateur radio satellites can be accessed, some using a hand-held transceiver HT , even, at times, using the factory "rubber duck" antenna.

Amateur radio operators use their amateur radio station to make contacts with individual hams as well as participating in round table discussion groups or "rag chew sessions" on the air. Some join in regularly scheduled on-air meetings with other amateur radio operators, called " nets " as in "networks" , which are moderated by a station referred to as "Net Control".

Amateur radio operators, using battery- or generator-powered equipment, often provide essential communications services when regular channels are unavailable due to natural disaster or other disruptive events. Many amateur radio operators participate in radio contests, during which an individual or team of operators typically seek to contact and exchange information with as many other amateur radio stations as possible in a given period of time. In addition to contests, a number of Amateur radio operating award schemes exist, sometimes suffixed with "on the Air", such as Summits on the Air , Islands on the Air, Worked All States and Jamboree on the Air.

Radio transmission permits are closely controlled by nations' governments because radio waves propagate beyond national boundaries, and therefore radio is of international concern. Also, radio has possible clandestine uses. Both the requirements for and privileges granted to a licensee vary from country to country, but generally follow the international regulations and standards established by the International Telecommunication Union [27] and World Radio Conferences.

All countries that license citizens to use amateur radio require operators to display knowledge and understanding of key concepts, usually by passing an exam.

Amateur licensing is a routine civil administrative matter in many countries. Amateurs therein must pass an examination to demonstrate technical knowledge, operating competence, and awareness of legal and regulatory requirements, in order to avoid interfering with other amateurs and other radio services.

A series of exams are often available, each progressively more challenging and granting more privileges: greater frequency availability, higher power output, permitted experimentation, and, in some countries, distinctive call signs. Some countries, such as the United Kingdom and Australia , have begun requiring a practical assessment in addition to the written exams in order to obtain a beginner's license, which they call a Foundation License.

In most countries, an operator will be assigned a call sign with their license. In some countries, a separate "station license" is required for any station used by an amateur radio operator. Amateur radio licenses may also be granted to organizations or clubs. In some countries, hams were allowed to operate only club stations. An amateur radio license is valid only in the country in which it is issued or in another country that has a reciprocal licensing agreement with the issuing country.

Some countries, such as Syria and Cuba , restrict operation by foreigners to club stations only. In some countries, an amateur radio license is necessary in order to purchase or possess amateur radio equipment. Amateur radio licensing in the United States exemplifies the way in which some countries award different levels of amateur radio licenses based on technical knowledge: three sequential levels of licensing exams Technician Class, General Class, and Amateur Extra Class are currently offered, which allow operators who pass them access to larger portions of the Amateur Radio spectrum and more desirable shorter call signs.

The Technician Class and General Class exams consist of 35 multiple-choice questions, drawn randomly from a pool of at least To pass, 26 of the 35 questions must be answered correctly. Morse Code is no longer tested in the U. Studying for the exam is made easier because the entire question pools for all license classes are posted in advance. Prospective amateur radio operators are examined on understanding of the key concepts of electronics, radio equipment, antennas, radio propagation , RF safety, and the radio regulations of the government granting the license.

These examinations are sets of questions typically posed in either a short answer or multiple-choice format. Examinations can be administered by bureaucrats , non-paid certified examiners, or previously licensed amateur radio operators. The ease with which an individual can acquire an amateur radio license varies from country to country. In some countries, examinations may be offered only once or twice a year in the national capital and can be inordinately bureaucratic for example in India or challenging because some amateurs must undergo difficult security approval as in Iran.

Currently only Yemen and North Korea do not issue amateur radio licenses to their citizens, although in both cases a limited number of foreign visitors have been permitted to obtain amateur licenses in the past decade. Some developing countries, especially those in Africa , Asia , and Latin America , require the payment of annual license fees that can be prohibitively expensive for most of their citizens.

A few small countries may not have a national licensing process and may instead require prospective amateur radio operators to take the licensing examinations of a foreign country. In countries with the largest numbers of amateur radio licensees, such as Japan , the United States , Thailand, Canada , and most of the countries in Europe , there are frequent license examinations opportunities in major cities. Granting a separate license to a club or organization generally requires that an individual with a current and valid amateur radio license who is in good standing with the telecommunications authority assumes responsibility for any operations conducted under the club license or club call sign.

A few countries may issue special licenses to novices or beginners that do not assign the individual a call sign but instead require the newly licensed individual to operate from stations licensed to a club or organization for a period of time before a higher class of license can be acquired. A reciprocal licensing agreement between two countries allows bearers of an amateur radio license in one country under certain conditions to legally operate an amateur radio station in the other country without having to obtain an amateur radio license from the country being visited, or the bearer of a valid license in one country can receive a separate license and a call sign in another country, both of which have a mutually-agreed reciprocal licensing approvals.

Reciprocal licensing requirements vary from country to country. Some countries have bilateral or multilateral reciprocal operating agreements allowing hams to operate within their borders with a single set of requirements. Some countries lack reciprocal licensing systems. When traveling abroad, visiting amateur operators must follow the rules of the country in which they wish to operate. Some countries have reciprocal international operating agreements allowing hams from other countries to operate within their borders with just their home country license.

Other host countries require that the visiting ham apply for a formal permit, or even a new host country-issued license, in advance. The reciprocal recognition of licenses frequently not only depends on the involved licensing authorities, but also on the nationality of the bearer.

As an example, in the US, foreign licenses are recognized only if the bearer does not have US citizenship and holds no US license which may differ in terms of operating privileges and restrictions.

Many people start their involvement in amateur radio by finding a local club. Clubs often provide information about licensing, local operating practices, and technical advice.

Newcomers also often study independently by purchasing books or other materials, sometimes with the help of a mentor, teacher, or friend. Established amateurs who help newcomers are often referred to as "Elmers", as coined by Rodney Newkirk, W9BRD, [32] within the ham community. See Category:Amateur radio organizations. An amateur radio operator uses a call sign on the air to legally identify the operator or station.

The FCC in the U. Many countries do not follow the ITU convention for the numeral. The newer three-level Intermediate License holders are assigned 2E0xxx and 2E1xx, and the basic Foundation License holders are granted call signs M3xxx or M6xxx.

In the United States , for non-vanity licenses, the numeral indicates the geographical district the holder resided in when the license was first issued. Prior to , US hams were required to obtain a new call sign if they moved out of their geographic district. Call signs starting with 'V' end with a number after to indicate the political region; prefix CY indicates geographic islands. The last two or three letters of the callsigns are typically the operator's choice upon completing the licensing test, the ham writes three most-preferred options.

Callsigns in Canada can be requested with a fee. Also, for smaller geopolitical entities, the numeral may be part of the country identification.

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Amateur personal

Amateur personal