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Evaporation into the Making model forts. Please let me know if you Monteith model airflow over surface any information. Therefore, the relative humidity becomes very low. Can you please give me idea for modelling evaporative cooling in my model. It is generally assumed that the soil moisture of the clayey soil is at field capacity after two days from irrigation. The application of climatic data for planning and management of sustainable rainfed and irrigated crop production. Mohteith equation includes all parameters that govern energy exchange and corresponding latent heat or ET flux from uniform expanses airflw vegetation.
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The km domain covers the entire Antarctic continent, providing sufficient horizontal resolution to capture detailed topographic forcing over nearly the entire continent, with the exception of highly complex terrain such as along the Transantarctic Monteith model airflow over surface. Penman-Monteith equation InPenman combined the energy balance with the mass transfer method and derived an equation to compute the evaporation from an open water surface from standard climatological records of sunshine, temperature, humidity and wind speed. Relating ET o to a specific crop has the advantage of incorporating the biological and physical processes involved in Monteith model airflow over surface from cropped surfaces. Previous studies have simulated the flow over detailed models of individual research ships in order to quantify Moteith effect of flow distortion Kissing in the stairwell well-exposed anemometers, usually sited on a mast in the ship's bows. View larger version 19K. Yelland, : A surfaace tunnel study of the mean airflow around a simple representation of a merchant ship. Therefore, anemometers should be located as far as possible abeam of the mast and as high as possible above, rather than in front of, the measuring platform. Streamline maps and other analyses shown here are taken from the km horizontal resolution grids for the 1-yr period from 1 June to 31 May Wind direction and wind constancy a ratio of vector resultant wind speed to the mean wind speedhowever, show little seasonal variation. Next Article. Naturesyrface, 51 — Oceanic Technol. Wind speed measurements obtained from ship-mounted anemometers are biased by the presence of the ship, which distorts the airflow to the anemometer.
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- Like the Penman equation , the Penman—Monteith equation after Howard Penman and John Monteith approximates net evapotranspiration ET , requiring as input daily mean temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation.
- Previous work has shown that winds in the lower atmosphere over the Antarctic continent are among the most persistent on earth with directions coupled to the underlying ice topography.
- Wind speed measurements obtained from ship-mounted anemometers are biased by the presence of the ship, which distorts the airflow to the anemometer.
- This chapter introduces the user to the need to standardize one method to compute reference evapotranspiration ET o from meteorological data.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Kamal Gafar. Former Researcher in the Egyptian Met. Authority Dr. The FAO-Penman-Monteith model of estimating ETo has been considered to be relatively accurate and consistently perform in both humid and arid climates.
The aim of this study is checking and improving this method to be suitable for arid climates. For this purpose, we have used measurements of: grass evapotranspiration on two Agrometeorological stations, class A pan evaporation on five Agrometeorological stations and the required climatic elements on ten stations, all in Egypt beside eleventh one in UAE. Crop Evapotranspiration ETc has great importance for optimizing irrigation planning and increasing the water use efficiency to use the limited amount of irrigation water in the economic way.
We have to predict ETc by climatic methods because of the difficulty of direct measurements that cannot be generalized for all past and future seasons. The climatic method requires estimation of a kind of reference ET depends only on climatic elements, which can be converted to crop ET. In the FAO publication 24, Doorenbos and Pruitt modified the well known Penman equation to estimate a Reference Evapotranspiration ETo suitable for any climate after defining it as: "The rate of Evapotranspiration from an extensive surface of 8 to 15 cm tall green grass cover of uniform height, actively growing, completely shading the ground and not short of water".
The crop kind and its height are strictly defined; therefore, ETo is actually a function of climate only. Allen mentioned that numerous researchers analyzed the performance of this modified Penman method for different locations, and it became evident that this method does not behave the same way in different locations around the world.
Monteith refined the original Penman equation by introducing resistance parameters to characterize the transfer between the vegetated surface and the atmosphere. The resistances are: a surface resistance rs of vapor flow through stomata and soil surface, and an aerodynamic resistance ra from the vegetation upward involving friction of air over vegetative surfaces. The FAO experts in recommended the Penman-Monteith P-M equation as a new standard method for calculating ETo, by updating the definition of reference crop as: a hypothetical crop with assumed height of 0.
He mentioned this method overcomes shortcomings of the previous FAO modified Penman one and showed relative accuracy and consistent performance in both arid and humid climates after major comparative studies. Therefore, it is recommended as the sole standard method, and use of the older FAO or other methods is no longer encouraged. Smith M. In arid northwest China, Chuanyan Zhao et al evaluated the performance of 8 commonly used methods of estimating ETo on 5 stations, between them that related to Penman.
It is clear that the confusion in performance of the F-P-M model is still. There is an insistent demand to determine more accurate spatial and temporal distributions of ETo for optimizing irrigation planning in all the country area and to study the effect of climatic change on crop water use.
Except for the omission of a negligible amount of water used in the metabolic activities, crop evapotranspiration ETc is the same as the crop consumptive use of plants Chang, , P Doorenbos and Pruitt defined ETc as: "The depth of water needed to meet the water loss through evapotranspiration of a disease- free crop, growing in large fields under nonrestrictive soil conditions including soil water and fertility and achieving full production under the given growing environment".
This definition means that ETc is a function of climate and crop characteristics only. The Kc depends mainly on crop resistance, crop stages and the general climatic conditions. The Kc's for different crops are given for different stages and different general climatic conditions by Doorenbos and Pruitt and updated by Allen The aim of this study is checking and improving the F-P-M model to be suitable for arid climates.
Six of them are agromet in type denoted by "AMS" in Table 1 , which also indicates the international numbers, names, and coordinates latitude, longitude and altitude of all stations. Table 2 indicates the availability of climatic data, where, the available measured data are denoted by a star for all elements except wind speed that denoted by the height of wind sensor. Wind speed for Souhag has been imported from Kena nearby station.
The airflow above a 'homogeneous' region may have relatively large variations through the course of a day but small variations when referring to the total for the day Allen et al, Wind speeds are given for different heights. Averages of daily values of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed are calculated using at least 8 observations. It is calculated by a physical equation described in the FAO publication 56 by Allen Data of global radiation Rg and sunshine duration n are available, in the same time, for the six agromet stations.
This relation has been used for estimating Rg in stations have no measurements. They have a rectangular cross-section of x90 cm2 area and 70 cm in depth. It had dimensions of 60 m in the direction of prevailing wind, which is northerly, and 70 m across.
The grass was kept short and the same inside and outside the tanks. The grass field was irrigated frequently to keep the soil moisture at field capacity at all times. The tanks were irrigated twice daily with known quantities of water, such that percolation occurs daily. Percolated water was used among the water added for irrigation so that the chemical composition of the soil would remain unchanged.
Omar showed the reliability of this method of measuring grass ET. The available grass ET data are for 13 years on Tahrir and Bahtim having months of The class A pan Evaporation Ep is measured in the agromet stations that sited in agricultural environment. The Pan is installed in small dry field. It is of cylindrical galvanized steel, 10 inches deep and The water level is kept at The pan evaporation data are complete for the months.
Table 1 Locations of meteorological stations understudy S. Zone Station Name and its role here N. E means that data are estimated using station number Authority, Cairo.
Authority, Cairo, Egypt. Since the pan evaporation will incorporate the effect of all climatic factors, it is more accurate in estimating grass ET than empirical formulae that depend on fewer of the climatic factors. Grass ET is less than open water evaporation. Penman and Schofield gave three reasons for this: 1 the higher albedo of the vegetation, 2 the closure of the stomata at night, and 3 the diffusion impedance of the stomata.
Evaporimeters have the advantage of giving sufficient allowance to the advected energy in arid climates. Robins and Haise remarked that the most successful method for use in the presence of advected energy is evaporimeters Chang, Allen introduced a method for estimating ETo depending on Ep. He stated that the pan provides a measurement of the integrated effect of radiation, temperature, humidity and wind on the evaporation from an open water surface.
Therefore, it responds in a similar manner to the same climatic factors affecting crop transpiration. Regardless of several factors produce significant differences in loss of water from a water surface and from a cropped surface, the use of pans to predict ETo for periods of 10 days or longer may be warranted. In this study, the regression line between measurements of grass ET, which considered to be equal ETo, and Ep at Bahtim and Tahrir has been derived, and used in estimating ETo at the five stations have Ep measurements.
His equation form is written in the FAO publication 56 by Allen This equation includes all parameters that govern energy exchange and corresponding latent heat or ET flux from uniform expanses of vegetation.
Its parameters are measured or can be readily estimated from climatic data. Allen stated that the Aerodynamic resistance ra determines the transfer of heat and water vapor from the evaporating surface into the air above the canopy. This relation is restricted for neutral stability conditions, where no heat exchanges. It is a major factor governing crop ET. Where: the first term is the net short wave radiation and the second term is the net long wave radiation Rnl.
It is lost energy from the earth surface. Brutsaert preferred J as 0. In one such derivation, Brutsaert derived a formula by assuming a power function for the slab emissivity and a near-Standard Atmosphere in the lowest 15 kms. Hatfield et al tested 7 different relations at 17 locations in the Western United States. The Brutsaert type relation provided the best agreement with measurements.
The best one was the Brutsaert type. Finally, the Brutsaert type is reliable in different locations and its physical base permits broad usage. Therefore, Gafar recommended the following relation for estimating Rn. Its shape after converting to the current units is as follows, where e in [kPa].
Because the soil temperature lags air temperature, he estimated G by the following simple relation, where Ti is air temperature at the current month and Ti-1 is for the previous month. The concept of Kc enables the transfer of its developed values in the past studies between locations and climates, because Kc varies strongly with crop characteristics and weakly with climate. This is the reason of the global acceptance of the crop coefficient approach, where the Kc factors developed in the past studies are usefulness.
We used the Allen's Kc's for the study crops. He stated that Kc depends on crop type resistance rs, albedo and height , general climatic conditions, soil evaporation and crop growth stages. Allen gave a table for crop stages of several crops with different planting dates and climatic regions.
We used the percent of each stage to adjust stages of the study crops. Allen , also, gave another table for Kc's of several crops. The adjustment is for the Kc's of initial and mid stages according to the evaporating power of air, the irrigation interval and crop height. Allen's Kc's for the four stages of the study crops have been used after adjustment for the current climate. The weighted seasonal average Kc has been calculated for the study crops.
The collection was for 7 crops cultivated in different regions and seasons in Egypt. It is generally assumed that the soil moisture of the clayey soil is at field capacity after two days from irrigation. Soil samples were taken each 15 cm depth to a depth of 60 cm. Percentage of soil moisture content was calculated on oven dry basis.
Returning user. Dynamics of the airflow over the Antarctic continent are reasonably well understood. Low-level exchanges of mass between the high southern latitudes and the rest of the atmosphere are thus concentrated in a few locations. Boundary layer mass transports must be considered semipermanent features owing to the prominent topographic pathways and constancy of the wind. Implications of the low-level wind regime over the Antarctic continent are profound. Jacobs and R. This is illustrated in Fig.
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For Priestley—Taylor, only radiation irradiance observations are required. The underlying concept behind the Priestley—Taylor model is that an air mass moving above a vegetated area with abundant water would become saturated with water.
In these conditions, the actual evapotranspiration would match the Penman rate of potential evapotranspiration. However, observations revealed that actual evaporation was 1. The assumption here is for vegetation with an abundant water supply i.
The assumption that an air mass moving over a vegetated surface with abundant water saturates has been questioned later.
The lowest and turbulent part of the atmosphere, the atmospheric boundary layer , is not a closed box, but constantly brings in dry air from higher up in the atmosphere towards the surface. As water evaporates more easily into a dry atmosphere, evapotranspiration is enhanced.
The proper equilibrium of the system has been derived and involves the characteristics of the interface of the atmospheric boundary layer and the overlying free atmosphere. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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October Allen; Luis S. Pereira; Dirk Raes; Martin Smith FAO Irrigation and drainage paper Journal of Hydrology. Bibcode : JHyd Monteith Along Princess Ragnhild Coast, wind directions remain easterly although wind speeds are weak until nearly m above the surface in conjunction with an offshore cyclone in the circumpolar trough.
Vertical profiles for wind speeds at interior sites not shown are similar to that shown in Fig. Figure 6 shows the streamlines of the wind field over Antarctica at sigma levels corresponding to elevations approximately and m above the ice sheet from the km resolution AMPS June —May archive. By comparison with Fig.
Wind speeds reach a maximum near this level Fig. By m above the ice sheet Fig. Note that the streamlines trace out an anticyclonic vortex that mirrors the high-interior topographic contours.
The horizontal pressure gradients within the lowest m above the surface must follow the gradient of the ice terrain to produce this streamline pattern. Analyses such as shown in Parish and Cassano and soundings taken over the continent reveal that the depth of the katabatic layer is typically m or less, especially away from the steep coastal slopes.
This suggests that the ambient horizontal pressure field at m above the ice surface is not necessarily the result of radiative cooling but may be modulated by the Antarctic ice terrain through other processes such as blocking and adjustment. The transition from an anticylonic circulation to a cyclonic vortex begins approximately m above the ice surface.
By m not shown , a cyclonic circulation is well established with the center of circulation over the Ross Sea, similar to the mean hPa height contours shown in King and Turner Antarctic topography constrains the atmospheric motion over the continent throughout the entire tropospheric column.
Radiation budgets associated with the elevated, sloping Antarctic ice sheets ensure that strong horizontal temperature gradients extend nearly to hPa over the highest portion of East Antarctica. A consequence of this topographic constraint is a stable circumpolar vortex in the upper troposphere, which does not show the variability of its Northern Hemisphere counterpart Schwerdtfeger Given the strong influence of the cold, elevated Antarctic ice sheets on the tropospheric circulations, it is reasonable to ask what seasonal variations are seen in the streamline patterns.
A somewhat puzzling observation from the record of available observations at manned stations on the continent is that the mean summertime wind direction differs only slightly from that observed during winter. The detailed wind record for the historic Cape Denison station, situated at the steep coast of the continent at Mean wind speeds show a strong seasonal influence with winter wind speeds of Wind direction and wind constancy a ratio of vector resultant wind speed to the mean wind speed , however, show little seasonal variation.
Keller et al. The large-scale streamline patterns over Antarctica are nearly identical to those in Fig. Close inspection reveals similar streamline confluence features and drainage pathways off the interior of the East Antarctic ice sheet. Wind speeds, however, show considerable seasonal differences. The locations of the wind maxima persist throughout the year. Because strong control of the atmospheric circulation in the lower levels is provided by the ice topography as shown in Fig. Boundary layer mass transports must be considered semipermanent features owing to the prominent topographic pathways and constancy of the wind.
Low-level exchanges of mass between the high southern latitudes and the rest of the atmosphere are thus concentrated in a few locations.
To address this, the net mass flux in the lower atmosphere was determined using the annual averages in wind and temperature. Figure 8 depicts the integrated meridional mass flux in the lowest m at 2. Recognizing the asymmetry of the Antarctic ice sheets about the pole, mass fluxes were also calculated at Secondary maxima can be identified that are also associated with streamline confluence features. Overall, visual inspection of the curves in Fig. Continuity requirements dictate that the time-averaged divergent low-level transport off Antarctica is compensated for in part by a convergent upper-level transport directed southward toward the continent.
To complete the thermally direct circulation, subsidence must occur over the continent with rising motion situated to the north of the coastline.
To depict the mean meridional circulation between the Antarctic and midlatitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, the km-resolution outer AMPS domain was required. The zonally averaged mean meridional circulation from the km grid for June to May is shown in Fig. Qualitatively, subsidence over Antarctica feeds the drainage flows in the lower boundary layer. Near the katabatic-prone coastal sections, the strongest vertical velocities are found just above the boundary layer in response to the strong downslope flows.
North of the Antarctic coastline, convergence results as the low-level winds decelerate offshore and rapidly become enveloped within the broad easterly circumpolar flow that surrounds the continent. Rising motion occurs with the largest values found just north of the coastline. Maximum rising motion is found in the lowest m near the continental margins but the height of the maximum vertical velocity increases to the north.
This suggests that the primary forcing is from low-level processes such as the convergence of the drainage flows near the continental margin. Cyclone activity becomes of increasing importance north of the continent near the circumpolar trough axis in conjunction with the thermally indirect Ferrel cell. The annual cycle of the low-level wind regime leads to pronounced seasonal modulations of the surface pressure e.
Transition periods from winter to summer August—December and summer to winter December—April are the times of the most significant change in the wind, temperature, and pressure fields.
Modulation of the mean circulation must result. As the continent cools, drainage flows intensify and northward low-level mass fluxes from Antarctica increase as seen in Fig. Surface pressures decrease over the continent with corresponding mass loading at midlatitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. As evidence, Fig. Seasonal surface pressure changes display marked differences with latitude with the greatest amplitudes over Antarctica. Pressures then level off in April and May and actually increase in June before the primary minimum is reached in August.
Seasonal modulation of pressure over Antarctica and the high southern latitudes is also depicted in Fig. The summertime mass loading and wintertime mass transport away from Antarctica are clearly revealed with an annual cycle of surface pressures in excess of 20 hPa over the high interior. Figure 11 illustrates the seasonal surface pressure change from August to December to show the summertime mass loading in response to the heating of the elevated continent. Even for a 1-yr average depiction, it can be readily seen that the pressure change signal is tied to the Antarctic topography as shown by Parish and Bromwich Adjacent to the Antarctic coastal margin is the circumpolar trough of low pressure that is found throughout the year.
The trough represents the mean position of the frequent cyclonic activity along the margin of the continent e. Daily analyses and satellite imagery clearly depict the strong cyclonic nature of the baroclinic zone to the north of the continent.
Most cyclones have centers that are on average several hundred kilometers north of the continental coastline in response to the Antarctic coastal ice escarpment, which rises above m within km of the coast along East Antarctica. The ice sheet serves as a formidable barrier to the southward-moving air in the lowest levels of the atmosphere. Traditionally the circumpolar trough was thought to be a region of synoptic-scale cyclone maturity and decay e. However, the advent of high-resolution satellite imagery, and in the Ross Sea sector, the presence of an extensive array of automatic weather stations, has led to the realization that the trough is an active area of cyclone formation e.
The low-level airflow off the Antarctic continent such as shown in Fig. As noted by Schwerdtfeger , the adjustment of the low-level winds that move northward from Antarctica serves to reinforce the easterly wind regime. Figure 12a depicts the mean sea level pressures and streamlines of the wind at the lowest sigma level from the km AMPS archive for the June —May period.
The band of easterlies appears to be — km in extent from the Antarctic coastline, scaling with the Rossby radius of deformation for the katabatic outflow. Observations of the low-level airflow in the coastal margin of Antarctica indicate that circumpolar easterlies are strongest adjacent to the coast and decrease to the north, eventually reversing to westerlies to the north of the circumpolar trough. The strongest easterly winds are found at the surface and decrease rapidly with height, similar to the continental wind regime.
As an example, Fig. Wind profiles nearest the continent have a jetlike structure with maximum wind speeds several hundred meters above the surface. Significant adjustment of the continental flows occurs as the drainage flows move beyond the terminal ice slopes, moving in a pseudoinertial circle such that the wind regime is primarily easterly within a few kilometers of the coast. As noted by Goodrick et al. Near the coast of the continent, westward-directed surface currents exist that are in response to the easterly wind regime.
It is known that the surface winds in the coastal margin of Antarctica have a profound effect on the sea ice concentration as well as vertical circulations within the ocean.
Because the net transport in a vertical column of ocean is to the left of the wind in the Southern Hemisphere due to Coriolis effects, an easterly wind is associated with oceanic transport to the south. Downwelling must take place right at the coastline with upwelling, associated with the decay of the easterly wind, situated offshore. Goodrick et al. Dynamics of the airflow over the Antarctic continent are reasonably well understood. Winds are primarily controlled by the topographic slope and orientation of the underlying ice sheets.
The wind field reflects the influence of katabatic drainage in response to diabatic cooling of the ice slopes as well as through the adjusted large-scale horizontal pressure gradients, established in part by the contrast between the cold continental ice surface and warmer ocean surface to the north. Real-time simulations performed using the and km resolution AMPS model for the 1-yr period of June —May have been used to infer the mean circulation over the Antarctic continent.
Streamline analyses from the AMPS km archive show strong topographic influence in the lowest levels of the atmosphere, confirming the earlier surface streamline depiction of Parish and Bromwich Effects of the terrain extend nearly 2 km above the surface as is evidenced by streamlines that parallel the broad ice terrain, suggesting that the resulting flows cannot merely be explained as katabatic phenomena.
Such zones also mark areas of concentrated northward mass fluxes. Cyclonic vorticity becomes established in the upper troposphere in response to the horizontal temperature gradients associated with the cold, sloping ice continent.
Implications of the low-level wind regime over the Antarctic continent are profound. Northward transports of mass away from the continent are focused along confluence zones, being constrained by the orography. A thermally direct circulation results from the pattern of low-level outflow from Antarctica. Broad subsidence occurs over the continent and rising motion is found over the ocean adjacent to the continental coastline.
There appears to be a relationship between the low-level continental flows and the circumpolar easterly circulation about the Antarctic periphery. Adjustment of the drainage flows off the continent occurs just north of the coastline. This marks the southern extent of the circumpolar trough and so there is a link between the low-level flows and cyclone development in the coastal margin. The Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode SAM; Thompson and Wallace is the dominant mode of circulation variability in the mid- and higher latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere on daily to interannual time scales Baldwin ; Kidson and reflects changes in the circumpolar westerlies around Antarctica.
It arises from an interaction between the westerly circulation and the oceanic cyclonic eddies e. Associated with the westerly changes are mass transports in the polar direct cell to support the altered zonal circulation e. Parish and Cassano and van den Broeke and van Lipzig note that the Antarctic surface winds are forced by both the diabatic cooling of near-surface air and the terrain-forced blocking of the synoptic-scale free atmospheric flow.
It will be important in the future to rationalize these two views of the forcing of the polar direct cell over Antarctica and to understand the feedback of this circulation on the SAM as a result of modifying the high-latitude baroclinicity.
The Antarctic continent with terrain contours m. Mean wintertime streamlines over the surface of the Antarctic continent adapted from Parish and Bromwich Mean meridional mass flux northward is positive in lowest m AGL at Vertical velocities scaled by Next Article. Previous Article. Thomas R. Parish x. Search for articles by this author.
David H. Bromwich x. Keywords: Airflow ; Surface layer ; Antarctica ; Atmospheric circulation. Streamlines of the Antarctic wind field. Implications of the Antarctic wind field. View larger version 81K Fig. View larger version K Fig. View larger version 37K Fig. View larger version 93K Fig. View larger version 67K Fig. View larger version 28K Fig. View larger version 89K Fig.
View larger version 60K Fig. May Share this Article Share. The Extratropical Transition of Tropical Cyclones. Tornado Occurrence times. Part I: Model Implementation and Sensitivity times.
Adams, N. Baldwin, M. Ball, F. Google Scholar. Bromwich, D. Parish, : Meteorology of the Antarctic. Meteorology of the Southern Hemisphere, Meteor. Liu, A. Rogers, and M. Van Woert, : Winter atmospheric forcing of the Ross Sea polynya.
Jacobs and R. Weiss, Eds. Union, — Cassano, T. Klein, G. Heinemann, K. Hines, K. Steffen, and J. Monaghan, J. Powers, J. Cassano, H-L. Wei, Y-H. Kuo, and A. Monaghan, K.
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This paper is an analysis of equilibrium evaporation and its role in the energy balance of a terrestrial surface, as described by combination theory.
Three themes are covered: first, a brief historical review identifies multiple definitions of the concept of equilibrium evaporation. Second, these are formalized by developing the basic principles of combination theory with minimum approximation. Several measures are utilized to do this: linearization is avoided, radiative and storage coupling are incorporated systematically, and actual and linearized saturation deficits are distinguished.
The formalism is used to analyse several algebraically defined states and limits for the surface energy balance.
In contrast, open systems cannot reach such an equilibrium. This evolutionary definition of equilibrium evaporation differs from an alternative algebraic definition, the fully decoupled limit. The differences between the two definitions are identified, and the evolutionary definition is shown to be more fundamental. Volume , Issue If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
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View access options below. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube. Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Abstract This paper is an analysis of equilibrium evaporation and its role in the energy balance of a terrestrial surface, as described by combination theory. Citing Literature.
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