That viruses could cause cancer was unaccepted by the scientific establishment, largely because the epidemiology of cancer was inconsistent with that of known viruses, such as influenza. There ensued a global hunt for viruses that cause cancer in mammals, a quest that has been largely unsuccessful. There remains the biological puzzle: why would viruses cause leukemias and sarcomas in chickens, but not in humans? Fifty years after its discovery, Howard Temin reported another characteristic of Rous Sarcoma Virus that would rock the scientific community: its replication required an enzymatic step that made a DNA copy of its RNA genome. This one avian virus had rocked several basic tenets of biomedicine: that cancer could be caused by an infectious agent, that information could flow in both directions between DNA and RNA, that there were major species-specific differences in disease causation, and, finally, that the oncogenic nature of the virus was due to its incorporation and slight mutation of a normal gene, Src, encoding a protein kinase important to cell division.
Tramsfer of Animal Science 80 Although mature sperm Agricultural biotechnology sperm mediated gene transfer are naturally protected against uptake of foreign nucleic acid molecules, certain environmental conditions, for example at key times within the reproductive tract, may reduce this protection, suggesting that SMGT may occasionally take place in nature. The mixture was incubated for 40 trabsfer with occasional mixing. Various distinct steps in transgene uptake by the Afrika nudes cell have been described or proposed, including a model based upon endogenous reverse transcriptase activity. The Influence of Soils on Human Health. Enhancing Milk. It is possible that the mosaicism we observed is due to transgene integration at various stages of early embryonic development. List of Contributors Editor s : Kevin R.
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This versatility, along with its well-characterized life cycle and gene regulation, have given researchers great flexibility in designing vector systems based on SV BioTechniques — P, Barrell G. Views Read AAgricultural View history. Other available gene transfer strategies for generating transgenic livestock include nuclear transfer and retroviral-mediated gene transfer. DNA smears caused by diverse rates of migration in the gel when compared with the controls can be observed in lanes 4 and 5. S: Transgenic farm animals: Progress report. Plants are then regenerated from cells that harbor the desired donor cytoplasmic genotypes. Biotechmology characteristics might be further improved by genetic engineering of the vector virus. Through the fusion of sperm and egg, each parent contributes half of its genome an organism's entire repertoire of genes to its offspring, but the composition of that half Agricultural biotechnology sperm mediated gene transfer in each parental sex cell and hence in each cross. G, Vilotte J. Since mAb C bound to all tested sperm from various species, LB-SMGT should be applicable Free sex in pudlic different strains of mice as well as with other rodents such as the rat. Geminiviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses of plants that are transmitted by insects, such as leafhoppers. Consequently, few plant genes of agronomic importance have been isolated.
Sperm-mediated gene transfer SMGT is a transgenic technique that transfers genes based on the ability of sperm cells to spontaneously bind to and internalize exogenous DNA and transport it into an oocyte during fertilization to produce genetically modified animals.
- That viruses could cause cancer was unaccepted by the scientific establishment, largely because the epidemiology of cancer was inconsistent with that of known viruses, such as influenza.
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- Organisms containing integrated sequences of cloned DNA transgenes , transferred using techniques of genetic engineering to include those of gene transfer and gene substitution are called transgenic animals.
- Sperm-mediated gene transfer SMGT is a transgenic technique that transfers genes based on the ability of sperm cells to spontaneously bind to and internalize exogenous DNA and transport it into an oocyte during fertilization to produce genetically modified animals.
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. It is a more precise technique, but not fundamentally different from genetic selection or crossbreeding in its result. The obvious question is ' Why genetically modify livestock? Piglets grow up to gm more during a 21d lactation Noble et al. Human health is directly affected by the necessity for a sustainable and secure supply of healthful food.
Genetic modification of livestock holds the promise to improve public health via enhanced nutrition. For thousands of years, farmers have improved livestock in order to provide for nutritious, wholesome, and cost-effective animal products. Transgenesis allows improvement of nutrients in animal products, including their quantity, the quality of the whole food, and specific nutritional composition.
Transgenic technology could provide a means of transferring or increasing nutritionally beneficial traits. For example, enhancing the omega-3 fatty acid in fish consumed by humans may contribute to a decreased occurrence of coronary heart disease. In fact, transgenic pigs that contain elevated levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been produced Lai et al. Furthermore, transfer of a transgene that elevates the levels of omega-3 fatty acids into pigs may enhance the nutritional quality of pork Lai et al.
The production of lower fat, more nutritious animal products produced by transgenesis could enable improvements in public health. Over the last few years, livestock production has been under attack as being harmful to the environment. However, the production of transgenic livestock has the potential to dramatically reduce the environmental footprint of animal agriculture.
Increasing efficiency and productivity through transgenesis could decrease the use of limited land and water resources while protecting the soil and ground water. One excellent example of this is the swine the Enviro-Pig TM produced by genetic engineering Golovan et al.
Pigs do not fully utilize dietary phosphorus. Dietary supplementation results in increased production costs, and incomplete utilization results in phosphorus levels in waste products that can cause pollution problems.
Golovan et al. The use of phytase transgenic pigs in commercial pork production could result in decreased environmental phosphorus pollution from livestock operations. Improved production efficiencies of milk and meat would decrease the amount of manure, slow the direct competition for human food, decrease the amount of water required for the animals and the production facilities, and decrease the land necessary for livestock operations. Advances in transgenic technology provide the opportunity either to change the composition of milk or to produce entirely novel proteins in milk Table 2.
The major nutrients in milk are protein, fat, and lactose. By elevating any of these components, we can impact the growth and health of the developing offspring.
Cattle, sheep, and goats used for meat production can benefit from increased milk yield or composition. In tropical climates, heat-tolerant livestock breeds such as Bos indicus cattle are essential for the expansion of agricultural production. However, Bos indicus cattle breeds do not produce copious quantities of milk. Improvement in milk yield by as little as liters per day may have a profound effect on weaning weights in cattle such as the Nelore or Guzerat breeds in Brazil Figure 2.
Similar comparisons can be made with improving weaning weights in meat-type breeds like the Texel sheep and Boer goat. This application of transgenic technology could lead to improved growth and survival of offspring. The overexpression of beneficial proteins in milk through the use of transgenic animals may improve growth, development, health, and survivability of the developing offspring. Small improvements in milk volume in Guzerat cows left using genetic material from high-producing Holsteins right could have a significant impact on Brazilian beef production Wheeler et al.
The production of transgenic livestock has been instrumental in providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene action implicated in the control of growth, Ebert et al.
It is possible to manipulate growth factors, growth factor receptors, and growth modulators through the use of transgenic technology. Results from one study have shown that an increase in porcine growth hormone GH leads to enhancement of growth and feed efficiency in pigs Vize et al.
In the case of fish, there is a need for more efficient and rapid production, without diminishing the wild stocks, to provide a protein source for the increasing world population. Introduction of salmon GH constructs has resulted in a fold increase in weight after 1 year of growth Devlin et al.
This illustrates the point that increased growth rate and ultimately increased protein production per animal can be achieved via transgenic methodology. Another aspect of manipulating carcass composition is that of altering the fat or cholesterol composition of the carcass. There is also the possibility of introducing beneficial fats such as the omega-3 fatty acids from fish or other animals into our livestock Lai et al.
In addition, receptors such as the low-density lipoprotein LDL receptor gene and hormones like leptin are potential targets that would decrease fat and cholesterol in animal products. Genetic modification of livestock will enhance animal welfare by producing healthier animals. Animal welfare is a high priority for anyone involved in the production of livestock. The application of transgenic methodology should provide opportunities to genetically engineer livestock with superior disease resistance.
One application of this technology is to treat mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, typically caused by infectious pathogen s. Mastitis causes decreased milk production. Transgenic dairy cows that secrete lysostaphin into their milk have higher resistance to mastitis due to the protection provided by lysostaphin, which kills the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus , in a dose-dependent manner Donovan et al.
Lysostaphin is an antimicrobial peptide that protects the mammary gland against this major mastitis-causing pathogen. Recent progress has produced prion-free Richt et al.
This is only a partial list of organisms or genetic diseases that decrease production efficiency and may also be targets for manipulation via transgenic methodologies. Several potential genes have recently been identified that may profoundly affect reproductive performance and prolificacy. Introduction of a mutated or engineered estrogen receptor ESR gene could increase litter size in a number of diverse breeds of pigs. A single major autosomal gene for fecundity, the Boroola fecundity FecB gene , which allows for increased ovulation rate, has been identified in Merino sheep Piper et al.
Each copy of the gene has been shown to increase ovulation rate by approximately 1. Production of transgenic sheep containing the appropriate FecB allele could increase fecundity in a number of diverse breeds. The manipulation of reproductive processes using transgenic methodologies is only beginning and should be a rich area for investigation in the future.
The control of the quality, color, yield, and even ease of harvest of hair, wool, and fiber for fabric and yarn production has been another area of focus for transgenic manipulation in livestock. The manipulation of the quality, length, strength, fineness, and crimp of the wool and hair fiber from sheep and goats has been examined using transgenic methods Hollis et al.
In the future, transgenic manipulation of wool will focus on the surface of the fibers. Decreasing the surface interaction could decrease shrinkage of garments made from such fibers. Recently, a novel approach to producing spider silk , a useful fiber, has been accomplished using the milk of transgenic goats Karatzas et al. Spiders that produce orb-webs synthesize as many as seven different types of silk for making these webs.
One of the most durable varieties is dragline silk. Its energy-absorbing capabilities exceed those of steel. There are numerous potential applications of these fibers in medical devices, sutures, ballistic protection, tire cord, air bags, aircraft, automotive composites, and clothing. In using any new technology, there are problems that occur and there are risks to be considered. From the technical side, these problems can be: 1 unregulated expression of genes resulting in over- or underproduction of gene products; 2 too high a copy number resulting in overexpression of products; 3 possible side effects, e.
Many, if not all, of these problems are related to the transgene itself, integration site, copy number, and transgene expression. These issues can be addressed, at least in part, through construct design and testing. From the animal side, the welfare, biology, and health of the resulting transgenic animal must be of paramount concern. From the consumer side, the food or agricultural product produced must be safe, wholesome, non-allergenic, nutritious, and economical.
These are issues being addressed by various governmental agencies. The genetic engineering of livestock is a difficult task, and great care must be taken before such effort begins. Serious consideration is critical because of the time, cost, welfare, ethics, risks, and benefits involved in these kinds of projects. However, farmers, consumers, and scientists all want safe food, which means that animal care, animal health, animal welfare, public concern, ethics, and societal benefit and vigilance cannot be ignored.
On the contrary, these concerns should be welcomed when designing and conducting such projects. Consideration of these as well as scientific issues will lead us forward toward harvesting the bounty promised by this important technology. Boroola fecundity FecB gene : A single major autosomal gene for fecundity in Merino sheep.
Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease CJD : A progressive neurological disease in humans caused by a transmissible agent known as a prion. EGF : Epidermal growth factor, which is a growth factor involved in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation.
IGF-I : Insulin-like growth factor-I, which is a growth factor involved in neonatal growth and anabolic growth in adults. This is the same disease as bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE.
Staphylococcus aureus : A gram-positive bacterium that is a major causative agent of mastitis in cattle. Such an organism is able to pass the transgene on to all the offspring. It should be stressed that all the cells of a transgenic individual contain the transgene.
Also, the original transgenic individual had the foreign DNA inserted into the one-cell embryo via a laboratory technique, such as pronuclear injection. It could be a microbe, plant, or animal.
Devlin, R. Production of germline transgenic Pacific salmonids with dramatically increased growth performance. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52 , Extraordinary salmon growth . Nature , Donovan, D. Engineering disease resistant cattle. Transgenic Research 14 , Dunham, R. Comparison of traditional breeding and transgenesis in farmed fish with implications for growth enhancement and fitness.
Transgenic Animals in Agriculture ,
Saito, M. Sometimes there is limitation of appropriate organs or rejection of live organ donation. Remove a small piece of tissue from the tail and examine its DNA for the desired gene. Greisbach, R. Transformation of field strains has proved more difficult but should soon be feasible A. Tissue-specific expression of rat myosin light-chain 2 gene in transgenic mice.
Agricultural biotechnology sperm mediated gene transfer. Introduction
Our data show that transgenic animals such as pigs and mice can be generated efficiently, simply, and easily by LB-SMGT when compared to current techniques.
Germ-line transmission to the F1 generation, In addition, our flow cytometry and DNA binding data demonstrated that DNA could specifically bind to sperm via mAb C from all tested species, from birds to mammals including human. Therefore, our data suggests that LB-SMGT could be used to generate transgenic animals efficiently in most, if not all, species. Therefore, we chose surgical oviduct insemination in most of our pig experiments. Very encouraging data were obtained from the initial screening of F0 animals.
The transgene was detected in a similar rate as using surgical oviduct insemination by Southern blot analysis. Recently, a deep intrauterine insemination technique, which dramatically reduces the number of sperm and volume required for conventional artificial insemination, has been reported [ 24 ].
Surgical oviduct insemination, in vitro fertilization, and artificial insemination have all been recognized as simple and successful techniques for generating offspring in animals for many years. Here, we demonstrated the efficacy of using these techniques in combination with the LB-SMGT technology to generate transgenic animals such as pigs and mice.
The LB-SMGT technology that we have described here has a universal application for producing transgenic animals in different breeds Duroc, Yorkshire, and Landrace of pigs and different species of animals pig, mouse, and chicken with less labor, skill requirement, and cost but with a high rate of success.
Therefore, a number of useful genes could be easily introduced into livestock to benefit modern agriculture and medicine. Our data demonstrate that exogenous DNA is specifically bound to the sperm cell surface via the linker protein mAb C through ionic interaction.
It has been suggested that polycationic reagents could spontaneously condense DNA into small particles known as polyplexes [ 25 ]. The antibody cross-linker may provide protection from DNAase activity designed to prevent foreign DNA from entering the egg [ 26 , 27 ].
However, it is yet unclear whether internalization into sperm is an essential process for transgene chromosomal integration and how mAb C affects this process. Exogenous DNA molecules may dissociate from the linker protein due to a change in pH, proteolysis, or other unknown mechanisms in the fertilized egg.
This free DNA or possibly even linker-bound DNA might be integrated into the chromosome during early phases of embryonic development. This raises the interesting question of whether there is any similar linker existing in nature. If it exhibits a high gene transfer rate as observed in our experiments, such a linker might play a role in the proposed lateral gene transfer.
The recently sequenced human genome contains as many as bacterial genes that may have been laterally transferred into the human genome [ 29 ]. One million spermatozoa were distributed in 0.
The mixture was incubated for 40 min with occasional mixing. After one wash and centrifugation at rpm for 1. After washing twice with centrifugation at rpm for 1. After washing the sperm twice with incubation buffer to remove unbound 32 P-labeled DNA, samples were measured by liquid scintillation counting.
The data were statistically analyzed by paired t-test and a two-tailed p-value was drawn. The standard protocol of pig surgical oviduct insemination was followed [ 30 ]. Briefly, on day 1 at pm, every pig was injected with I. On day 4 at pm 72 hr later , I. After cooling to room temperature, 1. Then the tube was left undisturbed for 30 min. After most spermatozoa settled to the bottom to form a pellet-like precipitate, the supernatant containing unbound mAb C was removed.
Finally, the sperm precipitate was combined with 1. Approximately 3 hours from the time of collection, 0. Genomic DNA was extracted from the tail or ear of animals using a standard phenol-chloroform extraction protocol.
The DNA samples were separated on a 0. The standard protocol of mouse in vitro fertilization was followed [ 31 , 32 ]. Louis, MO. After 48 hours, each mouse was given 5 I. Approximately 0. All females were sacrificed at On day 5, 2-cell stage embryos were transferred to the oviduct of pseudopregnant CD-1 females.
KC carried out the pig farm operation and participated in its design and coordination. JQ carried out the molecular genetic studies, drafted the manuscript, and participated in its design.
MSJ carried out the initial molecular genetic studies and participated in its initial design. YHL carried out the initial mouse studies and participated in its initial design. MCW carried out the surgical oviduct insemination of pigs. LB and JB Jr. HIH and JX participated in the mouse and chicken studies. KW conceived of the study, drafted the initial manuscript, and participated in its design and coordination.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. In: Transgenic Animals in Agriculture. Wilmut I: Are there any normal cloned mammals?.
Nat Med. Chan AW: Transgenic animals: current and alternative strategies. Dickson D: "Dangerous" liaisons in cell biology. Squires EJ: Status of sperm-mediated delivery methods for gene transfer. Smith KR: Sperm cell mediated transgenesis: a review. Anim Biotechnol. Transgenic Res. Gandolfi F: Sperm-mediated transgenesis.
Exp Physiol. J Biol Chem. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. Biotechnol Bioeng. Motta P, Van Blerkom J: A scanning electron microscopic study of rabbit spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract following coitus. Cell Tissue Res. Pongsawasdi P, Svasti J: The heterogeneity of the protamines from human spermatozoa. Biochim Biophys Acta. Thurston LM, Watson PF, Holt WV: Sources of variation in the morphological characteristics of sperm subpopulations assessed objectively by a novel automated sperm morphology analysis system.
J Reprod Fertil. Hum Gene Ther. DNA Cell Biol. Exp Cell Res. Mol Reprod Dev. Vet Rec. Fraser LR: In vitro capacitation and fertilization. Methods Enzymol. Download references. This work was funded by BioAgri Corp. The authors appreciate Dr. William Stuart for his assistance in manuscript preparation. Correspondence to Ken Wang. Reprints and Permissions. Chang, K. Effective generation of transgenic pigs and mice by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer..
Download citation. Search all BMC articles Search. Research article Open Access Published: 19 April Effective generation of transgenic pigs and mice by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer. Abstract Background Transgenic animals have become valuable tools for both research and applied purposes. Results The linker protein, a monoclonal antibody mAb C , is reactive to a surface antigen on sperm of all tested species including pig, mouse, chicken, cow, goat, sheep, and human.
Background The introduction of foreign genes into animals forms the basis of a powerful approach for studying gene regulation and the genetic basis of development. Figure 1. Full size image. Figure 2. Table 1 DNA binding assay. Full size table. Table 2 Summary of transgenic pig analysis.
Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. This technique is based on the ability of spermatozoa to take up exogenous genes of interest in the form of DNA molecules in vitro and deliver them to the oocyte during fertilisation.
Thus, novel genetic information could be integrated into the embryo genome in order to alter the expression of specific genes of the offspring and subsequent generations. DNA uptake by spermatozoa is a very specific and well regulated mechanism. Although SMGT has been shown to be efficient, protocols for animal transgenesis are still under optimisation. Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in SMGT will enhance our understanding of the biology of fertilisation.
Although not yet perfect, the technique of SMGT is of high biotechnological and medical potential. The use of SMGT to generate transgenic domestic animals could enhance their performance, and could also enable the production of proteins and pharmaceuticals within the milk of farm mammals. In addition, it could be used to generate animals as models for human diseases or to produce multitransgenic animals for xenotransplantation purpose.
Finally, SMGT also holds promise in the context of human gene therapy in future. Sperm-mediated gene transfer SMGT represents a novel set of technologies for animal or in the future, human genetic modification using the sperm as a vector, as opposed to more traditional
Methods for sperm-mediated gene transfer.
That viruses could cause cancer was unaccepted by the scientific establishment, largely because the epidemiology of cancer was inconsistent with that of known viruses, such as influenza. There ensued a global hunt for viruses that cause cancer in mammals, a quest that has been largely unsuccessful. There remains the biological puzzle: why would viruses cause leukemias and sarcomas in chickens, but not in humans? Fifty years after its discovery, Howard Temin reported another characteristic of Rous Sarcoma Virus that would rock the scientific community: its replication required an enzymatic step that made a DNA copy of its RNA genome.
This one avian virus had rocked several basic tenets of biomedicine: that cancer could be caused by an infectious agent, that information could flow in both directions between DNA and RNA, that there were major species-specific differences in disease causation, and, finally, that the oncogenic nature of the virus was due to its incorporation and slight mutation of a normal gene, Src, encoding a protein kinase important to cell division. In , sixty years after the discovery of the virus, Temin hypothesized that information flow from messenger RNA to DNA provided a mechanism for short-term amplification of gene sequences, perhaps fundamentally important to embryonic development; this hypothesis remains largely untested.
The same year, Ben Brackett, in the laboratory of Hilary Kiprowski, demonstrated the uptake of Simian Virus 40 DNA into rabbit sperm heads, and the delivery to rabbit ova at fertilization.
In , apparently unaware of the report by Brackett, Spadafora and colleagues described the uptake of exogenous DNA by mouse sperm, and the generation of transgenic pups; and Arezzo reported DNA uptake by three species of sea urchins and the generation of transgenic sea urchin embryos expressing the reporter gene contained in the exogenous DNA.
At least two large U. Now, however, forty years after the original observation in rabbit ova, SMGT has become an increasingly important tool, as reported in this eBook, whose chapters are rich with new, species-specific approaches to SMGT, and new animal husbandry and biomedical applications.
There is evidence to support this notion. And was Temin correct, that reverse transcription plays a fundamentally important role in early embryonic development, perhaps beginning with fertilization? There is also mounting evidence to support this notion. What would be the advantage to an organism incorporating exogenous RNA or DNA, perhaps pathogenic, into a fertilized egg? Hence, robust defense mechanisms to protect the integrity of the genome itself are probably operational, especially in the egg, throughout nature.
Sperm Mediated Gene Transfer: Concepts and Controversies includes essential background information for newcomers to the field, summarizes the work accomplished, and heralds the work to be done -- to begin to understand and fully employ the transfer of exogenous genetic information at fertilization.
Peyton Rous and Howard Temin would be fascinated by the following chapters. Ann A. As a young researcher in an established transgenic laboratory at Edinburgh University in , I was struck by the effects of the publication in the journal Cell of a paper reporting that mammalian sperm could readily act as vectors for foreign DNA.
Almost overnight, attention in our laboratory switched from established methods of transgenesis towards this exciting new prospect, and immediate efforts were made to replicate the Cell work.
The talk at the time was that all the paraphernalia, training and expense of pronuclear microinjection the standard approach would be rendered redundant by this disruptive new technology, known as sperm-mediated gene transfer SMGT. In the event, the original Cell work could not be replicated, either in our laboratory or in a number of laboratories worldwide that were similarly attempting to make SMGT work.
This failure was experienced by many in the field of animal transgenesis as something of a body-blow. Researchers were genuinely very disappointed that SMGT manifestly did not deliver on its initial promise.
A backlash followed, with a substantial amount of skepicism being directed towards both the Cell paper and also towards the fundamental biological notion that sperm could ever be expected to be able to act as transgene vectors. Almost as rapidly as interest in SMGT had exloded, most researchers abandoned their efforts towards getting sperm to carry foreign DNA.
Nevertheless, a small, disparate array of transgenic scientists continued to work with sperm in the context of SMGT, either in the hope of establishing SMGT as a viable method for producing transgenic animals, or to address fundamental questions concerning interactions between sperm and exogenous nucleic acid molecules and the parameters influencing such activity.
The outcome from such work has been as varied as the research purposes involved. Since the late s, several significant papers describing sperm-DNA interactions have been published. For example, we are now much more knowledgeable about the fate of nucleic acids taken up by sperm; it has become clear that certain forms of augmentation, for instance the combination of DNA incubation with intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI , permits a reliably high level of exogene uptake; and transgenic animal generation has been reported via highly novel forms of SMGT, including in vivo transgene injections into the male reproductive tract and the use of nanotechnology to deliver transgenes into sperm.
Yet many unanswered questions remain, and certain tensions exist within the body of empirical data and theory associated with SMGT. To what extent may horizontal sperm-mediated gene transfer occur in nature? Why have a few groups continued to report extremely impressive results for the generation of transgenic animals using the original unaugmented 'autouptake' SMGT methodology, where such results could not be replicated by other groups?
And how do such positive reports fit with current theory itself based on empirical research that suggests sperm are unlikely to permanently harbour integrated transgenes following autouptake? While such questions and controversies have yet to be fully answered or resolved, it can be stated with confidence that continued research in the context of SMGT has, at the very least, significantly expanded our understanding of sperm cellular and molecular biology.
In addition, ongoing research into SMGT has kept alive the tantalising possibility that sperm have the potential to be routinely used for important genetic modification applications, including the generation of transgenic disease models, improved agricultural strains, transgenic bioreactors, xenotransplantation technology and perhaps even human gene therapy. The contributors to this book elucidate a broad range of theoretical and empirical aspects of SMGT.
The overall result is the construction of an intriguing picture of the diversity of potential applications and implications arising from the possible use of sperm as genetic vectors. A wide array of animal types is covered, ranging from invertebrates to large farm animals, and the range of SMGT augmentation methods described is similarly extensive.
And the aforementioned controversial aspects of SMGT are evident in these writings. This book, with its expert contributions, should allow the reader an unparalleled depth of insight into the concepts and controversies of SMGT.
It remains to be seen whether the SMGT revolution promised by the publication of the Cell paper will ever materialise. But the reader will be left in no doubt as to the importance of SMGT to modern bioscience. Kevin R.
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Conclusions - Pp. Index - Pp. Preface As a young researcher in an established transgenic laboratory at Edinburgh University in , I was struck by the effects of the publication in the journal Cell of a paper reporting that mammalian sperm could readily act as vectors for foreign DNA.
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