Male monastics are called bhikkhus. Both bhikkhunis and bhikkhus live by the Vinaya , a set of rules. Until recently, the lineages of female monastics only remained in Mahayana Buddhism and thus are prevalent in countries such as China , Korea , Taiwan and Vietnam but a few women have taken the full monastic vows in the Theravada and Vajrayana schools over the last decade. From conservative perspectives, none of the contemporary bhikkuni ordinations are valid. In Buddhism, women are as capable of reaching nirvana as men.
There is no point in discussing whether or not to revive the bhikshuni ordination; the question is merely how to do so properly within the context of the Vinaya. A shaved head is the other distinctive sign of a Buddhist monastic. Kabilsingh, Chatsumarn. Buddhist nun robes has allowed the female Buddhist nun robes to take full ordination, travelling to Taiwan to take part in week training programmes. It did not Budhist to reach Thailand or survive in Myanmar, and died out totally in India. The aim of the congress has been rated by the organizers of utmost importance for equality and liberation of Buddhist women nuns. Within these social conditions, Gautama Buddha opened up new horizons for women by founding the bhikkhuni sangha. Honolulu, According to the Summary Report as well as according to the other texts available from the congress there has not been a discussion on how and which of the eight gurudharmas discriminate against Buddhist nuns and how this can be changed Miles sex red head detail in nunn process of re-establishing the Mulasarvastivada bhikshuni ordination. Albany, N.
Controllin sexual urges. An Overview of Robes Worn by Buddhist Monks and Nuns
In many parts of Asia women are not allowed to be fully ordained. The tradition flourished for centuries throughout South and Southeast Asia, but appears to have lapsed in the Theravada tradition of Sri Lanka in the Buddhsit century C. You may be relieved to know that Buddhist monks and nuns no longer scavenge for cloth in rubbish heaps and cremation grounds. Buddhism came to Korea in the fourth century ce and developed until the thirteenth century; thereafter, it was repressed until Gay sissy boy porn turn of the twentieth century by the Confucian state. Innovative Buddhist Women: Swimming against the Stream. Following the devastation of the Korean War in the s, nuns even rebuilt some monasteries and transformed them into nunneries. Archived from the original on 13 March These eight, after all, were formulated for the sole purpose of avoiding censure by the lay society. There have been some attempts revive the tradition of women in the sangha within Theravada Buddhism in ThailandIndia and Sri Lankawith many women robed in Sri Lanka since Not by adopting outward form does one become a true monk. Following the doctrine of what is called the Universal Vehicle Mahayanathey practice with the wish to become fully awakened in order Buddhist nun robes help all beings realize their potential to be freed from unsatisfactory conditions. To the jun of Psp lace frame ability, we live in Buddhist nun robes way that supports our spiritual focus and aspirations: to Buddhist nun robes from harm, to help wherever we can, and Nudist massage for woman cultivate qualities like unbiased love, compassion, and wisdom in order to benefit all beings equally and most effectively.
At times Buddhist nuns had a prominent and respected role and at other times they vanished into obscurity.
- In the West, Buddhist nuns don't always call themselves "nuns," preferring to call themselves "monastics" or "teachers.
- Apr 27, Monastic Life , News.
- At times Buddhist nuns had a prominent and respected role and at other times they vanished into obscurity.
Male monastics are called bhikkhus. Both bhikkhunis and bhikkhus live by the Vinaya , a set of rules. Until recently, the lineages of female monastics only remained in Mahayana Buddhism and thus are prevalent in countries such as China , Korea , Taiwan and Vietnam but a few women have taken the full monastic vows in the Theravada and Vajrayana schools over the last decade.
From conservative perspectives, none of the contemporary bhikkuni ordinations are valid. In Buddhism, women are as capable of reaching nirvana as men. According to Buddhist scriptures, the order of bhikkhunis was first created by the Buddha at the specific request of his aunt and foster-mother Mahapajapati Gotami , who became the first ordained bhikkhuni. Bhikkhunis are required to take extra vows, the Eight Garudhammas , and are subordinate to and reliant upon the bhikkhu order.
In places where the bhikkhuni lineage was historically missing or has died out, due to hardship, alternative forms of renunciation have developed. The tradition of the ordained monastic community sangha began with the Buddha, who established an order of Bhikkhus monks. However, according to the scriptural account, not only did the Buddha lay down more rules of discipline for the bhikkhunis compared to the bhikkhu's in the Theravada version , he also made it more difficult for them to be ordained, and made them subordinate to monks.
The bhikkhuni order was established five years after the bhikkhu order of monks at the request of a group of women whose spokesperson was Mahapajapati Gotami , the aunt who raised Gautama Buddha after his mother died. The historicity of this account has been questioned,  sometimes to the extent of regarding nuns as a later invention. Additionally the ancient bhikkhunis feature in the Sanskrit Avadana texts and the first Sri Lankan Buddhist historical chronicle, the Dipavamsa, itself speculated to be authored by the Sri Lankan Bhikkhuni Sangha.
According to Peter Harvey, "The Buddha's apparent hesitation on this matter is reminiscent of his hesitation on whether to teach at all", something he only does after persuasion from various devas. Buddhists nowadays are still concerned with that fact, as shows at an International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha held at the University of Hamburg, Germany, in In Buddhism, women can openly aspire to and practice for the highest level of spiritual attainment.
Buddhism is unique among Indian religions in that the Buddha as founder of a spiritual tradition explicitly states in canonical literature that a woman is as capable of nirvana as men and can fully attain all four stages of enlightenment. In a similar vein, major canonical Mahayana sutras such as the Lotus Sutra , chapter 12,  records 6, bhikkhuni arhantis receiving predictions of bodhisattvahood and future buddhahood by Gautama Buddha.
Female monastics are required to follow special rules that male monastics do not, the Eight Garudhammas. The origin of the Eight Garudhammas , the special vows taken by female monastics, is unclear. The Buddha is quoted by Thannisaro Bhikkhu as saying, "Ananda, if Mahaprajapati Gotami accepts eight vows of respect, that will be her full ordination upasampada. This prophecy occurs only once in the Canon and is the only prophecy involving time in the Canon. In Young Chung noticed that society as recorded in the Vinaya always criticized the bhikkhunis more harshly using "shaven headed strumpets or whores", whereas the bhikkhus were simply called "shaven headed".
Within these social conditions, Gautama Buddha opened up new horizons for women by founding the bhikkhuni sangha. This social and spiritual advancement for women was ahead of the times and, therefore, drew many objections from men, including bhikkhus.
He was probably well aware of the controversy that would be caused by the harassment of his female disciples. The Vinaya does not allow for any power-based relationship between the monks and nuns.
Dhammananda Bhikkhuni wrote:. Nuns at the time of the Buddha had equal rights and an equal share in everything. In one case, eight robes were offered to both sanghas at a place where there was only one nun and four monks. The Buddha divided the robes in half, giving four to the nun and four to the monks, because the robes were for both sanghas and had to be divided equally however many were in each group.
Because the nuns tended to receive fewer invitations to lay-people's homes, the Buddha had all offerings brought to the monastery and equally divided between the two sanghas. He protected the nuns and was fair to both parties.
They are subordinate in the sense of being younger sisters and elder brothers, not in the sense of being masters and slaves.
Ian Astley argues that under the conditions of society where there is such great discrimination and threat to women, Buddha could not be blamed for the steps he took in trying to secure the Sangha from negative public opinion:. In those days and this still applies to much of present Indian society a woman who had left the life of the household would otherwise have been regarded more or less as a harlot and subjected to the appropriate harassment. By being formally associated with the monks, the nuns were able to enjoy the benefits of leaving the household life without incurring immediate harm.
Whilst it is one thing to abhor, as any civilized person must do, the attitudes and behavior towards women which underlie the necessity for such protection, it is surely misplaced to criticize the Buddha and his community for adopting this particular policy. The progression to ordination as a bhikkhuni is taken in four steps. A layperson takes the Five Precepts. The next step is to enter the pabbajja Sanskrit: pravrajya or monastic way of life, which includes wearing the monastic's robes.
The last and final step is to take the full vows of a bhikkhuni. The Order of Interbeing , established in and associated with the Plum Village movement, has fourteen precepts observed by all monastics. In Plum Village, the Eight Observations of Respect that nuns have to observe towards Buddhist monks are not observed, as Nhat Hanh claims they were invented only to help the stepmother of the Buddha, and that one need only keep Nhat Hanh's 14 precepts properly.
That's all. But of course he doesn't despise the traditional precepts. And I can accept them just to give joy to the monks who practice in the traditional way. If I can give them joy, I will have a chance to share my insights about women with them, and then they will be unblocked in their understanding. While the exact number of vows observed varies from one ordination lineage to another, generally the female monastic observes vows while the male monastic observes Novices, both male and female, adhere to twenty-five main vows.
A layperson or child monk too young to take the full vows may take the Five Vows called "approaching virtue" Wylie : dge snyan , THL : genyen. These five vows can be practiced as a monastic, where the genyen maintains celibacy, or as a lay practitioner, where the married genyen maintains fidelity.
Starting with the novice ordination, some may choose to take forty years to gradually arrive at the vows of a fully ordained monastic. The traditional appearance of Theravada bhikkhunis is nearly identical to that of male monks, including a shaved head, shaved eyebrows and saffron robes.
In some countries, nuns wear dark chocolate robes or sometimes the same colour as monks. The tradition flourished for centuries throughout South and Southeast Asia, but appears to have lapsed in the Theravada tradition of Sri Lanka in the 11th century C. With the bhikkhuni lineage extinct, no new bhikkhunis could be ordained since there were no bhikkhunis left to give ordination.
For this reason, the leadership of the Theravada bhikkhu Sangha in Burma and Thailand deem fully ordained bhikkhunis as impossible. No woman can be ordained as a Theravada Buddhist nun or bhikkhuni in Thailand. The Council has issued a national warning that any monk who ordains female monks will be punished.
Without ordination available to them, women traditionally voluntarily take limited vows to live as renunciants. These women attempt to lead a life following the teachings of the Buddha. They observe 8—10 precepts, but do not follow exactly the same codes as bhikkhunis. They receive popular recognition for their role. But they are not granted official endorsement or the educational support offered to monks. Some cook while others practise and teach meditation. White or pink robes are worn by Theravada women renunciants who are not fully ordained.
Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, now known as Dhammananda Bhikkhuni , is a Thai scholar who took bhikkhuni ordination in Sri Lanka and returned to Thailand, where bhikkhuni ordination is forbidden and can result in arrest or imprisonment for a woman. In 13th century Japan , Mugai Nyodai was ordained the first female abbess and thus the first female Zen master. To help establish the Bhikshuni Sangha community of fully ordained nuns where it does not currently exist has also been declared one of the objectives of Sakyadhita,  as expressed at its founding meeting in in Bodhgaya, India.
The Eight Garudhammas belong to the context of the Vinaya. Bhikkhuni Kusuma writes: "In the Pali, the eight garudhammas appear in the tenth khandhaka of the Cullavagga.
The text is not allowed to be studied before ordination. The traditional custom is that one is only allowed to study the bhikshu or bhikshuni vows after having taken them.
Tenzin Palmo is quoted with saying: "To raise the status of Tibetan nuns, it is important not only to re-establish the Mulasarvastivada bhikshuni ordination, but also for the new bhikshunis to ignore the eight gurudharmas that have regulated their lower status. These eight, after all, were formulated for the sole purpose of avoiding censure by the lay society.
In the modern world, disallowing the re-establishment of the Mulasarvastivada bhikshuni ordination and honoring these eight risk that very censure. There have been some attempts in recent years to revive the tradition of women in the sangha within Theravada Buddhism in India , Sri Lanka , and Thailand , with many women ordained in Sri Lanka since In Thailand, in , the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand , responding to the attempted ordination of two women, issued an edict that monks must not ordain women as samaneris novices , sikkhamanas probationers or bhikkhunis.
The two women were reportedly arrested and jailed briefly. A year-old Thai Buddhist 8-precept white-robed maechee nun, Varanggana Vanavichayen, became the first woman to receive the going-forth ceremony of a Theravada novice and the gold robe in Thailand, in Since then, the Thai Senate has reviewed and revoked the secular law banning women's full ordination in Buddhism as unconstitutional for being counter to laws protecting freedom of religion.
More than 20 further Thai women have followed in Dhammananda Bhikkhuni's footsteps, with temples, monasteries and meditations centers led by Thai bhikkhunis emerging in Samut Sakhon , Chiang Mai and Rayong. The stance of the Thai Sangha hierarchy has largely changed from one of denial of the existence of bhikkhunis to one of acceptance of bhikkhunis as of foreign non-Thai traditions. However Thailand's two main Theravada Buddhist orders, the Mahanikaya and Dhammayutika Nikaya, have yet to officially accept fully ordained women into their ranks.
Despite substantial and growing support inside the religious hierarchy, sometimes fierce opposition to the ordination of women within the sangha remains. In , Ayya Tathaaloka and Bhante Henepola Gunaratana oversaw a dual ordination ceremony at Aranya Bodhi forest refuge in Sonoma County, California where four women became fully ordained nuns in the Theravada tradition. In July a meeting of Buddhist leaders and scholars of all traditions met at the International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha,  in Hamburg, Germany to work toward a worldwide consensus on the re-establishment of bhikshuni ordination.
The Summary Report from the Congress  states that all delegates "were in unanimous agreement that Mulasarvastivada bhikshuni ordination should be re-established," and cites the Dalai Lama 's full support of bhikkhuni ordination the Dalai Lama had already demanded the re-establishment of full ordination for nuns in Tibet in The aim of the congress has been rated by the organizers of utmost importance for equality and liberation of Buddhist women nuns. XIVth Dalai Lama and the international monks and nuns sanghas will lead to further equality and liberation of Buddhist women.
This is a congress of historical significance which will give women the possibility to teach Buddha's doctrines worldwide. There is no point in discussing whether or not to revive the bhikshuni ordination; the question is merely how to do so properly within the context of the Vinaya. According to the Summary Report as well as according to the other texts available from the congress there has not been a discussion on how and which of the eight gurudharmas discriminate against Buddhist nuns and how this can be changed in detail in the process of re-establishing the Mulasarvastivada bhikshuni ordination.
The only women's ordination lineage that remains is the Dharmaguptaka one, which is in use in East Asian Buddhism. Theravada , where the presence of nuns is a prerequisite for new nuns to be ordained. This is problematic from a legalist point of view, as a woman from one Buddhist tradition ordained by nuns in another invalidates the notion of lineage.
Inauthentic nuns cannot legitimately go on to ordain other women in their own traditions and thus it is impossible to validly re-establish bhikkhuni ordination in lineages where it has ended. However, the German monk Bhikkhu Analayo , who was a presenter at the International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha ,  has argued that it is possible for bhikkhus alone to ordain bhikkhunis if necessary.
There is also a wide range of sashes, capes, obis, stoles, and other accouterments worn with robes in these Mahayana countries. Mon At the end of this conference, the international Buddhist women's association Sakyadhita Daughters of the Buddha was created. It did not seem to reach Thailand or survive in Myanmar, and died out totally in India. Archived from the original on 19 June Journal of Buddhist Ethics.
Buddhist nun robes. An Overview of Robes Worn by Buddhist Monks and Nuns
The monastics of Sravasti Abbey , where I train, follow the latter tradition. Generally speaking, the lifestyle of a Buddhist nun is simple and disciplined, involving study, meditation, and service. As we mature into our ordination, this lifestyle makes our lives rich with meaning and joy. In his vast collection of teachings, the Buddha gave monastics plenty of help to turn our minds in a different direction.
When we ordain, we take specific precepts that guide our behavior—10 precepts for novice nuns and for fully ordained nuns in our particular tradition. These instructions, laid out by the Buddha, form the skeletal structure of a lifestyle designed to keep our minds focused on our spiritual aims. How these are put into practice in daily life vary from tradition to tradition and from monastery to monastery. Nuns who live outside of a monastic community must develop their own ways to implement the guidelines.
Buddhist monastics cultivate inner beauty and drop fixation with making ourselves physically attractive. Since our hair is often a point of vanity—for men as well as women—nuns simply avoid that fault by doing without.
We also wear the same outfit every day—the robes of a Buddhist monastic—and forego jewelry and makeup. Have you ever been paralyzed staring into your closet wondering what to wear that day? Buddhist nuns do not have this problem. Buddhist monastics are celibate. This is also practical. He gave many, many teachings on how lay people can live harmoniously with their families and friends and genuinely benefit society through their work.
Buddhist nuns do not have that problem. That means no music videos, disco nights, gaming arcades, or movies except for relevant documentaries.
Those tunes stay buried in our minds for decades or lifetimes! Not all Buddhist monastics are vegetarian, but many are. Therefore, we refrain from eating their bodies. We follow a vegetarian diet at Sravasti Abbey. These are the obvious signs of the lifestyle, but for Buddhists—ordained or lay—the emphasis is on developing an internal focus. We practice the outer to work with the inner.
Inner development. Buddhism spread into China , beginning about the 1st century CE, and soon found itself at odds with Chinese culture. In India, exposing one shoulder was a sign of respect. But this was not so in China. In Chinese culture, it was respectful to cover the entire body, including the arms and shoulders. Further, China tends to be colder than India, and the traditional triple robe did not provide enough warmth.
With some sectarian controversy, Chinese monks began to wear a long robe with sleeves that fastened in the front, similar to robes worn by Taoist scholars. Then the kashaya uttarasanga was wrapped over the sleeved robe.
Colors of robes became more muted, although bright yellow -- an auspicious color in Chinese culture -- is common. Further, in China monks became less dependent on begging and instead lived in monastic communities that were as self-sufficient as possible. Because Chinese monks spent part of every day doing household and garden chores, wearing the kashaya all the time was not practical.
Instead, Chinese monks wore the kashaya only for meditation and ceremonial observances. Eventually, it became common for Chinese monks to wear a split skirt -- something like culottes -- or pants for everyday non-ceremonial wear. The Chinese practice continues today in China, Japan, and Korea.
There is also a wide range of sashes, capes, obis, stoles, and other accouterments worn with robes in these Mahayana countries. On ceremonial occasions, monks, priests, and sometimes nuns of many schools often wear a sleeved "inner" robe, usually gray or white; a sleeved outer robe, fastened in the front or wrapped like a kimono, and a kashaya wrapped over the outer sleeved robe.
In Japan and Korea, the outer sleeved robe is often black, brown, or gray, and the kashaya is black, brown, or gold but there are many exceptions to that.
Tibetan nuns, monks, and lamas wear an enormous variety of robes, hats, and capes, but the basic robe consists of these parts:. Share Flipboard Email. Updated January 18, The uttarasanga is the most prominent robe. It is sometimes also called the kashaya robe. It is a large rectangle, about 6 by 9 feet. It can be wrapped to cover both shoulders, but most often it is wrapped to cover the left shoulder but leave the right shoulder and arm bare.
The antaravasaka is worn under the uttarasanga. It is wrapped around the waist like a sarong, covering the body from waist to knees. The sanghati is an extra robe that can be wrapped around the upper body for warmth.
When not in use, it is sometimes folded and draped over a shoulder. The dhonka , a wrap shirt with cap sleeves.
Buddhist Nuns' Robes: Tibetan
A series of articles published as Preparing for Ordination , a booklet prepared by Venerable Thubten Chodron and available for free distribution. The question of protocol for sangha members in the Tibetan tradition raises many delicate yet important issues.
An ordained sangha member is expected to be a model of polite and refined behavior, but what does that model look like?
On the one hand, Western culture has its own standards of courtesy and its own etiquette which may be quite different from customs in Asia. Being an exemplar is a tough assignment, one which we work into gradually as our Dharma In the most general sense, Dharma refers to the teachings of the Buddha. Most specifically, it refers to the realizations of the path and the resultant cessations of suffering and its causes.
Sangha members are expected to be calm, courteous, and respectful, particularly in public and in the presence of monks, nuns, and teachers, which is not always easy. This is not to say that all monks and nuns behave this way or that when we wear Tibetan robes we should try to become Tibetans.
The customs of one culture are not necessarily better than those of another. The fundamental issue is practical: by understanding and observing polite behavior, we express respect for the tradition and feel comfortable and happy in it.
If we do not know or care about the culture, we feel awkward and unhappy. We offend people, disappoint our teachers, and feel inadequate as a monk Celibate male ordained practitioner.
Western people receive little or no training in protocol when they are ordained, and learning by trial and error can be a very discouraging process. Due to cultural and gender differences, it is difficult for Western nuns and monks to train intensively with qualified masters of the Tibetan tradition on an everyday basis.
Therefore, some of us who have learned by making mistakes thought it would be helpful to share what we have learned over the years. The standards of behavior described here are optimum, not necessarily mandatory. They are applicable to Tibetan social and religious situations, whether in Asia or the West. Familiarity with these norms will help sangha members understand the cultural landscape they now inhabit.
The good news is that many of these suggestions will help navigate social and monastic situations in other cultures, too. Many of the suggestions included here concern proper dress, hair length, and deportment. The important thing is the purity of the mind. At the same time, the buddha A person who has purified all defilements and developed all good qualities. Although certain Vinaya The ethical discipline, precepts, and rules of training for the monastic community.
The texts explaining this. Proper deportment is important in relation to the lay community also. Monastics who are refined, gentle, calm, and collected inspire others to practice. Monastics who behave poorly may cause them to lose faith or to criticize the tradition. Standards of behavior vary according to place and time, but monastics are wise to adopt a high standard and practice until it becomes natural.
The Buddhist robes are a distinctive sign of a Buddhist monastic. The simple, patchwork design symbolizes renunciation. Robes for monastics vary in color and styling from culture to culture, reflecting adaptations to climate and social conditions over the centuries.
In the Tibetan tradition, the robes for nuns and monks include a maroon lower robe called shamtab, a maroon shawl called Zen A Mahayana Buddhist tradition popular in China and Japan. A underskirt called meyog and an shirt called ngullen are worn underneath these.
Yellow, orange, red, or maroon are the most common colors for the underskirt and shirt. A yellow belt called kerag cinches the shamtab around the waist. It is generally a plain strip of cloth, but there are variations. Monks and nuns who are fully ordained wear a shamtab with five strip of patches sewn in a particular pattern and have a second yellow robe with 25 strips of patches called namcha which is worn on special occasions.
Underwear is advised, including a sports top or similar undergarment for nuns. Special care is taken when sitting cross-legged to avoid any embarrassing display. The shamtab , zen , and donka are worn from the moment one wakes up in the morning until going to bed at night, even when going to the toilet. Robes should be worn properly, clean and neat, at all times. Although not specified in the Vinaya texts, an extra set of these three items, the shirt, and underskirt is generally kept to wear during laundering.
In very hot weather, the shirt is sometimes worn without the donka. In the Tibetan tradition, sleeves, hats, scarves, and trousers are not appropriate. If, due to cold weather, a sweater is worn in an informal situation, it should be simple, without decoration, and of a solid, acceptable color, such as yellow or maroon.
Shoes are worn outside the monastery and are generally removed when entering temples. Sandals may be worn inside the monastery. Leather shoes are not worn by monastics in China, Korea, Taiwan, or Vietnam, but there is no such prohibition in the Tibetan tradition.
Unlike Theravadin countries, closed shoes are considered preferable to sandals in a formal situation. Shoes should be brown in color never black or white and conservative in design. A shaved head is the other distinctive sign of a Buddhist monastic. Like robes, the shaved head also symbolizes renunciation. According to the Vinaya texts, the hair may reach a length of two fingerbreadths, but normally it is shaved or sheared at least once a month. Therefore monastics cultivate refined behavior and are mindful of body language while sitting, walking, and standing.
While sitting on a chair or sofa, one does not cross the legs or ankles. To lie down, stretch, look here and there, run, or gesture wildly in public is considered impolite. When a teacher or someone senior enters the room, one stands and remains standing quietly and respectfully until directed to sit or until others sit. When walking, the body and mind are subdued and under control. It is not appropriate to glance here and there; the eyes are kept focused on a spot about one yard ahead.
When passing teachers or acquaintances, a brief greeting or subtle acknowledgment is sufficient. In Asian cultures, it is not appropriate for monastics to stop and talk on the street, especially with someone of the opposite sex.
If there is some information to be conveyed, find an appropriate location—not concealed but away from public view—to speak briefly. Nuns and monks carry as little as possible when walking along the street. They are supposed to have a minimum of possessions, so carrying one shoulder bag is considered sufficient.
Especially when attending teachings, monastics carry their chogu , the text, a cup, a cushion, and little else. It is considered a bit pretentious to carry a mala Prayer beads, rosary. They can be recited during meditation to purify and calm the mind. The same applies to doing prayers, rituals, or meditation ostentatiously in public. In Asian cultures, it is not considered appropriate for monastics to sit and talk for a long time in tea shops and restaurants. If invited out for lunch, eat a reasonable amount politely in a reasonable length of time and return to the monastery.
It is not appropriate to go for lunch alone with a member of the opposite sex. Before going out of the monastery even for a short time, the discipline master should be informed and permission received. It is best to go with a companion. Monastics should be safely in the monastery before nightfall and should not go out after that.
When traveling on pilgrimage or from place to place, it is best for monastics to travel together and to stay in temples or monasteries. It is not allowable for monks or nuns to stay overnight in the same room with someone of the opposite sex.
It is especially important to maintain good discipline when staying in a home, hotel, or a guest house. One should avoid movies and party situations. When staying in a monastery, one should follow the rules and timetable of the monastery, eating whatever is served, if invited.
In teachings or ceremonial situations, monks and nuns are seated in front as a mark of respect, not out of pride. It is appropriate for monks and nuns to quietly and humbly take an appropriate seat in order of seniority, keeping some space between monks and nuns, if possible. Being seated in front entails a responsibility to sit quietly and pay attention to the teachings, setting a good example for others.
When receiving a blessing from the lama or presenting a kata, monks and nuns are generally asked to go first, in order of seniority. In Buddhist cultures, monks go before nuns. Therefore monastics should speak in an appropriate way, at an appropriate time, and not too much. Appropriate speech includes topics related to Dharma; worldly topics should be avoided. Talking or laughing loudly is considered inappropriate, especially in public areas, around teachers or those who are senior.
Polite terms of address are important in human relations. A recognized reincarnate lama is Rinpoche, a teacher is Genla , an ordinary monk is Gushola , and an ordinary nun is Chola.
Genla and Ajala are usually safe, polite ways of addressing adult men and women in Tibetan society; Pala and Amala are used for elderly men and women. In Western cultures, shaking hands is a polite form of greeting, but this custom can be problematic for monastics.
A friendly attitude can often overcome embarrassing moments. German version: Vorbereitung auf die Ordination. Find more on these topics: ethical conduct , renunciation. Jump to keyboard-accessible menu for sighted users. Being an exemplar is a tough assignment, one which we work into gradually as our Dharma.
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