Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. Factors relating to male infertility include: . One of the most commonly known causes of infertility is Klinefelter Syndrome , affecting 1 out of — newborn males  Klinefelter Syndrome is a chromosomal defect that occurs during gamete formation due to a non-disjunction error during cell division. Resulting in males having smaller testes, reducing the amount of testosterone and sperm production. This extra chromosome directly affects sexual development before birth and during puberty links to learning disabilities and speech development have also been shown to be affected.
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. The population in different regions Male infertility sperm motility from varying amounts of infertility. Your health Male infertility sperm motility provider may also want to do blood work and semen tests. Archives of Andrology. Treatment for Unknown Causes of Male Infertility Sometimes motiliyt hard to tell the cause of male infertility. Little mptility known about how the smooth waves of axonemal contractions are coordinated along the entire length of the flagellum, across its distinct subregions. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. The cauda epididymides were removed from adult Light in latin and punctured four times at Malr distal end with a gauge needle in a prewarmed mm polystyrene culture dish that contained 3 ml of medium. For example, chronic prostatitis, in rare cases, can also block the ejaculatory ducts.
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What Is Male Infertility? Aescin horse chestnut seed extract is a motiloty of saponins Automatically yours teens baker taylor antioxidant, anti-edematous, and anti-inflammatory properties. Mind-body practice Tai chi and qigong are mind-body practices that originated in China that combine meditation with exercise to improve the flow of qi throughout the body. Many infertile couples have more than one cause of infertility, so it's likely you will both need to see a doctor. Combination nonprescription medications and supplements. Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones. Continue Reading. You can provide a Male infertility sperm motility by masturbating and ejaculating into a special container at the doctor's office. Learn about the different types of sperm motility and whether Y wperm chromosomes actually swim faster than X "girl" chromosomes. Mol Hum Reprod.
In this article, we look at the impact of sperm motility on fertility, as well as the causes of poor sperm motility, and what can be done to improve it.
- While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients.
- Infertility has long been thought of as primarily a female issue outside medical circles.
- There are six main criteria for healthy sperm:.
- In this article, we look at the impact of sperm motility on fertility, as well as the causes of poor sperm motility, and what can be done to improve it.
Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. Factors relating to male infertility include: . One of the most commonly known causes of infertility is Klinefelter Syndrome , affecting 1 out of — newborn males  Klinefelter Syndrome is a chromosomal defect that occurs during gamete formation due to a non-disjunction error during cell division. Resulting in males having smaller testes, reducing the amount of testosterone and sperm production.
This extra chromosome directly affects sexual development before birth and during puberty links to learning disabilities and speech development have also been shown to be affected. There are varieties in Klinefelter Syndrome, where some cases may have the extra X chromosome in some cells but not others, referred to as Mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome, or where individuals have the extra X chromosome in all cells.
The reduction of testosterone in the male body normally results in an overall decrease in the production of viable sperm for these individuals thereby forcing them to turn to fertility treatments to father children. Y chromosomal infertility is a direct cause of male infertility due to its effects on sperm production, occurring in 1 out of every males.
Men with this condition can exhibit azoospermia no sperm production , oligozoospermia small number of sperm production , or they will produce abnormally shaped sperm teratozoospermia. These deletions affect protein production that is vital for spermatogenesis. Studies have shown that this is an inherited trait; if a male is fathered by a man who also exhibited y chromosome deletions then this trait will be passed down. Pre-testicular factors refer to conditions that impede adequate support of the testes and include situations of poor hormonal support and poor general health including:.
Varicocele , is a condition of swollen testicle veins. There is increasing evidence that the harmful products of tobacco smoking may damage the testicles  and kill sperm,   but their effect on male fertility is not clear.
Smoking tobacco increases intake of cadmium, because the tobacco plant absorbs the metal. Cadmium, being chemically similar to zinc, may replace zinc in the DNA polymerase, which plays a critical role in sperm production. Zinc replaced by cadmium in DNA polymerase can be particularly damaging to the testes. Common inherited variants in genes that encode enzymes employed in DNA mismatch repair are associated with increased risk of sperm DNA damage and male infertility.
An increasing amount of recent evidence has been recorded documenting abnormal sperm DNA methylation in association with abnormal semen parameters and male infertility. Post-testicular factors decrease male fertility due to conditions that affect the male genital system after testicular sperm production and include defects of the genital tract as well as problems in ejaculation :. The diagnosis of infertility begins with a medical history and physical exam by a physician , physician assistant , or nurse practitioner.
Typically two separate semen analyses will be required. The provider may order blood tests to look for hormone imbalances, medical conditions, or genetic issues. The history should include prior testicular or penile insults torsion , cryptorchidism , trauma , infections mumps orchitis , epididymitis , environmental factors, excessive heat, radiation , medications, and drug use anabolic steroids , alcohol , smoking.
Sexual habits, frequency and timing of intercourse, use of lubricants , and each partner's previous fertility experiences are important. Loss of libido and headaches or visual disturbances may indicate a pituitary tumor.
The past medical or surgical history may reveal thyroid or liver disease abnormalities of spermatogenesis , diabetic neuropathy retrograde ejaculation , radical pelvic or retroperitoneal surgery absent seminal emission secondary to sympathetic nerve injury , or hernia repair damage to the vas deferens or testicular blood supply. A family history may reveal genetic problems. Usually, the patient disrobes completely and puts on a gown.
The physician, physician assistant, or nurse practitioner will perform a thorough examination of the penis , scrotum , testicles , I vas deferens , spermatic cords , ejaculatory ducts , urethra , urinary bladder , anus and rectum. An orchidometer can measure testicular volume, which in turn is tightly associated with both sperm and hormonal parameters. Semen sample obtaining is the first step in spermiogram. The optimal sexual abstinence for semen sample obtaining is of 2—7 days.
The first way to obtain the semen sample is through masturbation, and the best place to obtain it is in the same clinic, as this way temperature changes during transport can be avoided, which can be lethal for some spermatozoa.
A single semen sample is not determining for disease diagnosis, so two different samples have to be analyzed with an interval between them of seven days to three months, as sperm production is a cyclic process. It is prudent to ask about possible sample loss, as that could mask true results of spermiogram. To obtain the sample, a sterile plastic recipient is put directly inside, always no more than one hour before being studied. Conventional preservatives shouldn't be used, as they have chemical substances as lubricants or spermicides that could damage the sample.
If preservatives have to be used, for cases of religious ethics in which masturbation is forbidden, a preservative with holes is used. In case of paraplegia it is possible to use mechanic tools or electroejaculation.
Also is very important to label the sample correctly the recipient with patient identification, date, hour, abstinence days, among other data required to be known. This is the most common type of fertility testing. There are various combinations of these as well, e. Teratoasthenozoospermia , which is reduced sperm morphology and motility. Low sperm counts are often associated with decreased sperm motility and increased abnormal morphology, thus the terms "oligoasthenoteratozoospermia" or "oligospermia" can be used as a catch-all.
Common hormonal test include determination of FSH and testosterone levels. A blood sample can reveal genetic causes of infertility, e. Klinefelter syndrome , a Y chromosome microdeletion , or cystic fibrosis.
Scrotal ultrasonography is useful when there is a suspicion of some particular diseases. It may detect signs of testicular dysgenesis , which is often related to an impaired spermatogenesis and to a higher risk of testicular cancer.
A decreased testicular vascularization is characteristic of testicular torsion, whereas hyperemia is often observed in epididymo-orchitis or in some malignant conditions such as lymphoma and leukemia. Dilation of the head or tail of the epididymis is suggestive of obstruction or inflammation of the male reproductive tract. Treatments vary according to the underlying disease and the degree of the impairment of the male's fertility.
Further, in an infertility situation, the fertility of the female needs to be considered. Testicular-based male infertility tends to be resistant to medication. Vitamin E helps counter oxidative stress,  which is associated with sperm DNA damage and reduced sperm motility. Administration of luteinizing hormone LH or human chorionic gonadotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone FSH is very effective in the treatment of male infertility due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
Though androgens are absolutely essential for spermatogenesis and therefore male fertility, exogenous testosterone therapy has been found to be ineffective in benefiting men with low sperm count. Low-dose estrogen and testosterone combination therapy may improve sperm count and motility in some men,  including in men with severe oligospermia.
Researchers from Montana State University developed precursors of sperm from skin cells of infertile men. Sharpe et al. Ironically, ICSI's success has effectively diverted attention from identifying what causes male infertility and focused research onto the female, to optimize the provision of eggs and a receptive endometrium, on which ICSI's success depends.
Currently, there are no solid numbers on how many couples worldwide experience infertility, but the World Health Organization estimates between 60 and 80 million couples are affected. The population in different regions suffer from varying amounts of infertility. Starting in the late 20th century, scientists have expressed concerns about the declining semen quality in men.
Males from India suffered a Doctors in India disclosed that the sperm count of a fertile Indian male had decreased by a third over a span of three decades. Researchers in Calcutta conducted a study between and that also showed a decrease in sperm motility and seminal volume, but no change in sperm concentration. There are a variety of social stigmas that surround male infertility throughout the world. A lot of research has pointed to the relationship between infertility and emasculation.
When stereotypical ideals of manhood are virility and strength, men sharing problems of infertility can face feelings of inadequacy, unworthiness, and have thoughts of suicide. For the Shona people , since impotence is linked to infertility, an examination to check on the penile function spans from infancy to post marriage. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Male infertility Specialty Urology Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. See also: Smoking and pregnancy.
See also: DNA methylation. Main article: Semen analysis. Further information: Semen quality. University of Utah Health Sciences Center. Archived from the original on Retrieved Medical Clinics of North America. Human Reproduction Update. WHO manual for the standardized investigation, diagnosis and management of the infertile male. October Actas Urologicas Espanolas.
JP Medical Ltd. Reproductive Toxicology. Genetics Home Reference. January International Journal of Fertility and Women's Medicine. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Asian Journal of Andrology. Cent European J Urol Review. Ginekol Pol. Dig Dis. World J Gastroenterol. European Urology.
Semen analysis in alcohol dependence syndrome. Another study in 60 healthy men showed that taking mg of Testofen, a supplement made from fenugreek seed extract and minerals, daily for six weeks improved libido, sexual performance and strength The first study was published nearly 50 years ago. In fact, D-AA levels are significantly lower in infertile men than fertile men 3. Alcohol and male reproductive health: a cross-sectional study of healthy men from Europe and the USA. Nonprescription medications and supplements While the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nutritional supplements, these have become a mainstay of infertility treatment.
Male infertility sperm motility. What It Means, What's Normal, What's Not
Sperm Motility: Causes, Treatment, and More
There are six main criteria for healthy sperm:. Sperm also need to have the right number of chromosomes for a successful pregnancy. A breakdown in any of these criteria can result in male-factor infertility. An estimated 15—20 percent of couples worldwide are affected by infertility.
Of those, approximately 30—40 percent are infertile due to male factors, including sperm motility. Another 20 percent are infertile due to a combination of male and female factors. Healthy sperm motility is defined as sperm with forward progressions of at least 25 micrometers per second. There are different types of sperm motility issues, including:. Studies have proven that this is a myth, however, and there is no noticeable difference in motility or speed between X and Y sperm.
The exact cause for low sperm motility can vary. Some men may have a genetic cause, while others may have an undiagnosed medical condition. Lifestyle and environmental factors also play a big role in sperm motility. Smoking, for example, has been linked to decreased sperm motility, especially if the man smokes more than 10 cigarettes per day. Men who work in the military or have jobs that include painting, driving, or repeated trauma to the pelvic area may be at risk for work-induced infertility.
A condition called varicocele occurs when veins inside the scrotum become enlarged. This has also been linked to decreased sperm motility. Low sperm motility may also be due to a disorder in the male accessory sex gland secretion, which leads to the glands emptying more slowly.
Sperm motility can be tested through a routine semen analysis. The sample must be kept at room temperature and delivered to the facility within 30 to 60 minutes. If less than 40 percent of your sperm are motile, your considered to have low sperm motility. Some supplements may also help improve sperm motility.
For example, one study found a 52 percent increase in sperm motility in men who took a daily supplement of micrograms of selenium along with units of vitamin E for at least days in a row. Speak to your doctor before taking supplements, and be careful about where you buy them. Supplements are not regulated, so you should only buy them from reputable vendors.
If the cause of the sperm mobility issue is a medical problem, such as low hormone levels or varicocele, medication such as follicle-stimulating hormone or human chorionic gonadotropin may help. In some cases, your doctor may recommend surgery. Many factors can affect male fertility. If the sperm is otherwise healthy, pregnancy with low sperm motility can occur.
Using a reproductive technology such as in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination IUI can help increase the chance of pregnancy. This is because they bypass the need for the sperm to swim on their own. Your doctor can test you and your partner to determine if there are any health conditions affecting fertility. Your doctor will then determine next steps. Infertility has long been thought of as primarily a female issue outside medical circles.
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Sperm motility and pregnancy. There are different types of sperm motility issues, including: slow or sluggish progressive motility non-progressive motility, which is defined as anything less than 5 micrometers per second no mobility Sperm speed and gender: Fact or fiction?
In addition to sperm motility, your doctor can also use a semen analysis to test: the health of the male genital tract accessory organs ejaculation. Some lifestyle changes may help increase sperm motility for some men: exercise regularly maintain a healthy weight limit cell phone exposure reduce alcohol quit smoking Some supplements may also help improve sperm motility.
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