Oral antibiotic for chlamydia-Diagnosis and Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection - American Family Physician

Chlamydia can be easily cured with antibiotics. Persons with chlamydia should abstain from sexual activity for 7 days after single dose antibiotics or until completion of a 7-day course of antibiotics, to prevent spreading the infection to partners. It is important to take all of the medication prescribed to cure chlamydia. Medication for chlamydia should not be shared with anyone. Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease.

Oral antibiotic for chlamydia

These tests have good sensitivity 85 percent and specificity 94 to Do You Live with Anxiety? Medically reviewed by Drugs. Ectopic pregnancy: the Oral antibiotic for chlamydia. Collagen is an essential building block for the entire body, from skin to gut, and more. Therefore, follow-up of infants is recommended to determine whether initial treatment was effective. Diagnosis of C.

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Thus, alternative drugs should be used to treat chlamydia in pregnancy. But chlamydia can still cause health problems later. Other antibiotics may also be given. What Causes Chlamydia? Some women develop PID, an infection that Oral antibiotic for chlamydia damage the uteruscervixand ovaries. A test-of-cure culture repeat testing after completion of therapy to detect therapeutic failure Oral antibiotic for chlamydia treatment effectiveness. Inmore than 1. This Adult dvd shops works like a tonic for your immune system and also helps to clean the lymph so that pathogens can be taken out of the body. Because test results for chlamydia often are not available at the time that initial treatment decisions must be made, treatment for C. Men and women can both get the infection, but more cases in women are reported. If symptoms do occur, people with chlamydia experience the first signs within a few weeks of contracting the infection. Learn more.

Medically reviewed by Drugs.

  • Gonorrhea can be cured with the right treatment.
  • It is high time to understand that chlamydia is a sexual health complication that shows some oral symptoms.
  • Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection STI caused by bacteria.
  • Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection STI caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis.

This is a corrected version of the article that appeared in print. KARL E. In men, the infection usually is symptomatic, with dysuria and a discharge from the penis. Untreated chlamydial infection in men can spread to the epididymis.

Most women with chlamydial infection have minimal or no symptoms, but some develop pelvic inflammatory disease. Chlamydial infection in newborns can cause ophthalmia neonatorum.

Chlamydial pneumonia can occur at one to three months of age, manifesting as a protracted onset of staccato cough, usually without wheezing or fever.

Treatment options for uncomplicated urogenital infections include a single 1-g dose of azithromycin orally, or doxycycline at a dosage of mg orally twice per day for seven days. The recommended treatment during pregnancy is erythromycin base or amoxicillin. Preventive Services Task Force recommend screening for chlamydial infection in women at increased risk of infection and in all women younger than 25 years.

The incidence of chlamydial infection in women increased dramatically between and , from 79 to per , The most common site of Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the urogenital tract, and severity ranges from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Azithromycin Zithromax or doxycycline Vibramycin is recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated genitourinary chlamydial infection.

Amoxicillin is recommended for the treatment of chlamydial infection in women who are pregnant. Patients who are pregnant should be tested for cure three weeks after treatment for chlamydial infection.

Women with chlamydial infection should be rescreened for infection three to four months after completion of antibiotic therapy. All women who are 25 years or younger or at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases should be screened for chlamydial infection annually. In women, chlamydial infection of the lower genital tract occurs in the endocervix.

It can cause an odorless, mucoid vaginal discharge, typically with no external pruritus, although many women have minimal or no symptoms. Physical findings of urogenital chlamydial infection in women include cervicitis with a yellow or cloudy mucoid discharge from the os. The cervix tends to bleed easily when rubbed with a polyester swab or scraped with a spatula. Chlamydial infection cannot be distinguished from other urogenital infections by symptoms alone.

Clinical microscopy and the amine test i. Some women with C. A urethral discharge can be elicited by compressing the urethra during the pelvic examination. Urinalysis usually will show more than five white blood cells per high-powered field, but urethral cultures generally are negative. Women with chlamydial infection in the lower genital tract may develop an ascending infection that causes acute salpingitis with or without endometritis, also known as PID.

Symptoms tend to have a subacute onset and usually develop during menses or in the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle. Twenty percent of women who develop PID become infertile, 18 percent develop chronic pelvic pain, and 9 percent have a tubal pregnancy. Culture techniques are the preferred method for detecting C.

The newest nonculture technique is the nucleic acid amplification test, of which there are several. These tests have good sensitivity 85 percent and specificity 94 to The CDC recommends that anyone who is tested for chlamydial infection also should be tested for gonorrhea. In men, chlamydial infection of the lower genital tract causes urethritis and, on occasion, epididymitis.

Urethritis is secondary to C. This is best observed in the morning, before the patient voids. To observe the discharge, the penis may need to be milked by applying pressure from the base of the penis to the glans.

The diagnosis of nongonococcal urethritis can be confirmed by the presence of a mucopurulent discharge from the penis, a Gram stain of the discharge with more than five white blood cells per oil-immersion field, and no intracellular gram-negative diplococci. For diagnosis of C. Untreated chlamydial infection can spread to the epididymis. Patients usually have unilateral testicular pain with scrotal erythema, tenderness, or swelling over the epididymis.

Men 35 years or younger who have epididymitis are more likely to have C. A rare complication of untreated chlamydial infection is the development of Reiter syndrome, a reactive arthritis that includes the triad of urethritis sometimes cervicitis in women , conjunctivitis, and painless mucocutaneous lesions. Reactive arthritis develops in a small percentage of individuals with chlamydial infection.

Women can develop reactive arthritis, but the male-to-female ratio is The arthritis begins one to three weeks after the onset of chlamydial infection. The joint involvement is asymmetric, with multiple affected joints and a predilection for the lower extremities. The mucocutaneous lesions are papulosquamous eruptions that tend to occur on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.

The initial episode usually lasts for three to four months, but in rare cases the synovitis may last about one year. The treatment of C. Treatment also differs during pregnancy. For uncomplicated genitourinary chlamydial infection, the CDC recommends 1 g azithromycin Zithromax orally in a single dose, or mg doxycycline Vibramycin orally twice per day for seven days Table 1.

If patients vomit the dose of azithromycin within one to two hours of taking the medication, an alternative treatment should be considered Table 1. Information from reference 2. Follow-up of patients with urethritis is necessary only if symptoms persist or recur after completion of the antibiotic course. If symptoms suggest recurrent or persistent urethritis, the CDC recommends treatment with 2 g metronidazole Flagyl orally in a single dose plus mg erythromycin base orally four times per day for seven days, or mg erythromycin ethylsuccinate orally four times per day for seven days.

Patients should be advised to abstain from sexual intercourse for seven days after treatment initiation. In addition, physicians should obtain exposure information for the preceding 60 days and consider screening for other STDs such as human immunodeficiency virus HIV. The CDC does not recommend repeat testing for chlamydia after completion of the antibiotic course unless the patient has persistent symptoms or is pregnant. Women who present within 12 months after the initial infection and have not been screened should be reassessed for infection regardless of whether the patient believes her sex partner was treated or not.

PID usually can be treated on an outpatient basis. Hospitalization is required if a patient is pregnant; has severe illness, nausea and vomiting, or high fever; has tuboovarian abscess; is unable to follow or tolerate the outpatient oral regimen; or has disease that has been unresponsive to oral therapy.

Hospitalization also is indicated if surgical emergencies cannot be excluded. Ofloxacin Floxin mg orally twice daily for 14 days or levofloxacin Levaquin mg orally once daily for 14 days; with or without metronidazole Flagyl mg orally twice daily for 14 days. Ceftriaxone Rocephin mg IM in a single dose or cefoxitin Mefoxin 2 g IM in a single dose with concurrent probenecid Benemid 1 g orally in single dose or other parenteral third-generation cephalosporin; plus doxycycline Vibramycin mg orally twice daily for 14 days with or without metronidazole mg orally twice daily for 14 days.

Ofloxacin mg IV every 12 hours or levofloxacin mg IV once daily; with or without metronidazole mg IV every eight hours. Doxycycline and ofloxacin Floxin are contraindicated during pregnancy; therefore, the CDC recommends erythromycin base or amoxicillin for the treatment of chlamydial infection in pregnant women Table 3. Testing for cure is indicated in patients who are pregnant and should be performed three weeks after completion of treatment. Exposure to C. Ophthalmia neonatorum usually occurs within five to 12 days of birth but can develop at any time up to one month of age.

Prophylaxis with silver nitrate or antimicrobial ointment, which reduces the risk of gonococcal infection in neonates, does not reduce the risk of chlamydial infection. Testing for chlamydial infection in neonates can be by culture or nonculture techniques.

The eyelid should be everted and the sample obtained from the inner aspect of the eyelid. Sampling the exudates is not adequate because this technique increases the risk of a false-negative test. Ophthalmia neonatorum can be treated with erythromycin base or ethylsuccinate at a dosage of 50 mg per kg per day orally, divided into four doses per day for 14 days.

Topical treatment is ineffective for ophthalmia neonatorum and should not be used even in conjunction with systemic treatment. Symptoms of chlamydial pneumonia typically have a protracted onset and include a staccato cough, usually without wheezing or temperature elevation. Testing can be performed on a sample obtained from the nasopharynx.

Nonculture techniques may be used, but they are less sensitive and specific for nasopharyngeal specimens than for ocular specimens. If tracheal aspirates or lung biopsies are being collected for pneumonia in infants one to three months of age, the samples should be tested for C.

Like ophthalmia neonatorium, pneumonia secondary to C. Identification of asymptomatic infected persons and of symptomatic persons unlikely to seek diagnostic and treatment services. Evaluation, treatment, and counseling of sex partners of persons infected with an STD.

STD prevention messages should be individually tailored and based on stages of patient development and understanding of sexual issues; these messages should be delivered nonjudgmentally. Performing counseling and discussing behavioral interventions have been shown to reduce the likelihood of STDs and reduce risky sexual behavior.

The CDC recommends annual screening for chlamydial infection in all sexually active women 24 years and younger and in women older than 24 years who are at risk of STDs e. Already a member or subscriber? Log in. Miller is an assistant medical editor of American Family Physician. Address correspondence to Karl E. Miller, M. Reprints are not available from the author. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance supplement. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Predictive value of the clinical diagnosis of lower genital tract infection in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections—

The great news is that saw palmetto can treat mild and even severe chlamydia symptoms as well. Additionally, women can develop a throat infection if they perform oral sex on someone with the infection. We all know neem for its awesome antibacterial properties and the great news is that it is effective enough to alleviate nose chlamydia symptoms as well. Chlamydia is treated with antibiotics. Top of Page. The most common way chlamydia is spread is through unprotected anal or vaginal sex.

Oral antibiotic for chlamydia

Oral antibiotic for chlamydia. Throat and Other Symptoms

Oral chlamydia infections affect the cells lining the throat. The most common symptom is a sore throat, or pharyngitis, lasting several days. This discomfort can be continuous or come and go, and swallowing may increase the discomfort. A sore throat caused by chlamydia may be accompanied by low-grade fever and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. However, most people with an oral chlamydia infection experience no symptoms, leading many to be unaware that they are infected.

Once chlamydia is diagnosed, it can be effectively treated with antibiotics. However, chlamydia can lead to serious medical complications if it remains untreated. If you think you might be infected, it is important to be tested regardless of whether you have symptoms. Check with your local health department or online with the CDC to find a testing site near you. If you have a sore throat, it is most likely a viral infection.

According to CDC, 85 to 95 percent of sore throats among adults are due to a viral infection, which typically clears on its own in 5 to 7 days. Strep throat -- a bacterial infection with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci -- accounts for 5 to 15 percent of sore throats in adults and should be treated with antibiotics to avoid complications.

Gonococcal pharyngitis, a throat infection caused by the same bacteria responsible for gonnorhea, is also a consideration. As with oral chlamydia, however, gonococcal throat infections often cause no symptoms. CDC recommends dual therapy , or using two drugs, to treat gonorrhea — a single dose of mg of intramuscular ceftriaxone AND 1g of oral azithromycin.

It is important to take all of the medication prescribed to cure gonorrhea. Medication for gonorrhea should not be shared with anyone. Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease.

Antimicrobial resistance in gonorrhea is of increasing concern, and successful treatment of gonorrhea is becoming more difficult. Section Navigation. Antibiotics have successfully treated gonorrhea for several decades; however, the bacteria has developed resistance to nearly every drug used for treatment.

Gemifloxacin Erythromycin 0. STDs Home Page.

Chlamydia - Treatment - NHS

Several sequelae can result from C. Some women who receive a diagnosis of uncomplicated cervical infection already have subclinical upper-reproductive—tract infection. Asymptomatic infection is common among both men and women.

To detect chlamydial infections, health-care providers frequently rely on screening tests. Chlamydia screening programs have been demonstrated to reduce the rates of PID in women , Although evidence is insufficient to recommend routine screening for C. Among women, the primary focus of chlamydia screening efforts should be to detect chlamydia, prevent complications, and test and treat their partners, whereas targeted chlamydia screening in men should only be considered when resources permit, prevalence is high, and such screening does not hinder chlamydia screening efforts in women , More frequent screening for some women e.

Diagnosis of C. NAATs are the most sensitive tests for these specimens and therefore are recommended for detecting C. NAATs that are FDA-cleared for use with vaginal swab specimens can be collected by a provider or self-collected in a clinical setting. Self-collected vaginal swab specimens are equivalent in sensitivity and specificity to those collected by a clinician using NAATs , , and women find this screening strategy highly acceptable , Optimal urogenital specimen types for chlamydia screening using NAAT include first catch-urine men and vaginal swabs women Rectal and oropharyngeal C.

However, NAATs have been demonstrated to have improved sensitivity and specificity compared with culture for the detection of C. Some laboratories have established CLIA-defined performance specifications when evaluating rectal and oropharyngeal swab specimens for C. Most persons with C. However, when gonorrhea testing is performed at the oropharyngeal site, chlamydia test results might be reported as well because some NAATs detect both bacteria from a single specimen.

Data indicate that performance of NAATs on self-collected rectal swabs is comparable to clinician-collected rectal swabs, and this specimen collection strategy for rectal C.

Self-collected rectal swabs are a reasonable alternative to clinician-collected rectal swabs for C. Previous evidence suggests that the liquid-based cytology specimens collected for Pap smears might be acceptable specimens for NAAT testing, although test sensitivity using these specimens might be lower than that associated with use of cervical or vaginal swab specimens ; regardless, certain NAATs have been FDA-cleared for use on liquid-based cytology specimens.

Treating persons infected with C. Treating pregnant women usually prevents transmission of C. Chlamydia treatment should be provided promptly for all persons testing positive for infection; treatment delays have been associated with complications e. These studies were conducted primarily in populations with urethral and cervical infection in which follow-up was encouraged, adherence to a 7-day regimen was effective, and culture or EIA rather than the more sensitive NAAT was used for determining microbiological outcome.

More recent retrospective studies have raised concern about the efficacy of azithromycin for rectal C. Although the clinical significance of oropharyngeal C.

The efficacy of alternative antimicrobial regimens in resolving oropharyngeal chlamydia remains unknown. In a double-blinded randomized control trial, a doxycycline delayed-release mg tablet administered daily for 7 days was as effective as generic doxycycline mg twice daily for 7 days for treatment of urogenital C.

However, this regimen is more costly than those that involve multiple daily doses Delayed-release doxycycline Doryx mg daily for 7 days might be an alternative regimen to the doxycycline mg twice daily for 7 days for treatment of urogenital C.

Erythromycin might be less efficacious than either azithromycin or doxycycline, mainly because of the frequent occurrence of gastrointestinal side effects that can lead to nonadherence with treatment. Levofloxacin and ofloxacin are effective treatment alternatives, but they are more expensive and offer no advantage in the dosage regimen. Other quinolones either are not reliably effective against chlamydial infection or have not been evaluated adequately. To maximize adherence with recommended therapies, onsite, directly observed single-dose therapy with azithromycin should always be available for persons for whom adherence with multiday dosing is a concern.

In addition, for multidose regimens, the first dose should be dispensed on site and directly observed. To minimize disease transmission to sex partners, persons treated for chlamydia should be instructed to abstain from sexual intercourse for 7 days after single-dose therapy or until completion of a 7-day regimen and resolution of symptoms if present.

To minimize risk for reinfection, patients also should be instructed to abstain from sexual intercourse until all of their sex partners are treated. Test-of-cure to detect therapeutic failure i. A high prevalence of C. Most post-treatment infections do not result from treatment failure, but rather from reinfection caused by failure of sex partners to receive treatment or the initiation of sexual activity with a new infected partner, indicating a need for improved education and treatment of sex partners.

Repeat infections confer an elevated risk for PID and other complications in women. Men and women who have been treated for chlamydia should be retested approximately 3 months after treatment, regardless of whether they believe that their sex partners were treated , If retesting at 3 months is not possible, clinicians should retest whenever persons next present for medical care in the month period following initial treatment. Among heterosexual patients, if health department partner management strategies e.

Compared with standard patient referral of partners, this approach to therapy, which involves delivering the medication itself or a prescription, has been associated with decreased rates of persistent or recurrent chlamydia Providers should also provide patients with written educational materials to give to their partner s about chlamydia in general, to include notification that partner s have been exposed and information about the importance of treatment.

These materials also should inform partners about potential therapy-related allergies and adverse effects, along with symptoms suggestive of complications e. EPT is not routinely recommended for MSM with chlamydia because of a high risk for coexisting infections especially undiagnosed HIV among their partners, and because data are limited regarding the effectiveness of this approach in reducing persistent or recurrent chlamydia among MSM.

Having partners accompany patients when they return for treatment is another strategy that has been used to ensure partner treatment See Partner Services.

To avoid reinfection, sex partners should be instructed to abstain from sexual intercourse until they and their sex partners have been adequately treated i. Doxycycline is contraindicated in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.

Human data suggest ofloxacin and levofloxacin present a low risk to the fetus during pregnancy, with a potential for toxicity during breastfeeding; however, data from animal studies raise concerns about cartilage damage to neonates Thus, alternative drugs should be used to treat chlamydia in pregnancy.

Clinical experience and published studies suggest that azithromycin is safe and effective Test-of-cure to document chlamydial eradication preferably by NAAT 3—4 weeks after completion of therapy is recommended because severe sequelae can occur in mothers and neonates if the infection persists. In addition, all pregnant women who have chlamydial infection diagnosed should be retested 3 months after treatment. Detection of C. Because of concerns about chlamydia persistence following exposure to penicillin-class antibiotics that has been demonstrated in animal and in vitro studies, amoxicillin is now considered an alternative therapy for C.

The frequent gastrointestinal side effects associated with erythromycin can result in nonadherence with these alternative regimens. The lower dose day erythromycin regimens can be considered if gastrointestinal tolerance is a concern. Erythromycin estolate is contraindicated during pregnancy because of drug-related hepatotoxicity.

Persons who have chlamydia and HIV infection should receive the same treatment regimen as those who do not have HIV infection. For more information, see Chlamydia, Treatment. Top of Page. Prenatal screening and treatment of pregnant women is the best method for preventing chlamydial infection among neonates.

Although the efficacy of neonatal ocular prophylaxis with erythromycin ophthalmic ointments to prevent chlamydia ophthalmia is not clear, ocular prophylaxis with these agents prevents gonococcal ophthalmia and therefore should be administered see Ophthalmia Neonatorum Caused by N. Initial C.

Instead, C. Although C. These infants should receive evaluation and appropriate care and treatment. Sensitive and specific methods used to diagnose chlamydial ophthalmia in the neonate include both tissue culture and nonculture tests e.

Ocular specimens from neonates being evaluated for chlamydial conjunctivitis also should be tested for N. Infants treated with either of these antimicrobials should be followed for signs and symptoms of IHPS. Although data on the use of azithromycin for the treatment of neonatal chlamydia infection are limited, available data suggest a short course of therapy might be effective Topical antibiotic therapy alone is inadequate for treatment for ophthalmia neonatorum caused by chlamydia and is unnecessary when systemic treatment is administered.

Data on the efficacy of azithromycin for ophthalmia neonatorum are limited. Therefore, follow-up of infants is recommended to determine whether initial treatment was effective. The possibility of concomitant chlamydial pneumonia should be considered see Infant Pneumonia Caused by C. Mothers of infants who have ophthalmia caused by chlamydia and the sex partners of these women should be evaluated and presumptively treated for chlamydia.

For more information, see Chlamydial Infection in Adolescents and Adults. Chlamydia pneumonia in infants typically occurs at 1—3 months and is a subacute pneumonia. Characteristic signs of chlamydial pneumonia in infants include 1 a repetitive staccato cough with tachypnea and 2 hyperinflation and bilateral diffuse infiltrates on a chest radiograph.

Because clinical presentations differ, all infants aged 1—3 months suspected of having pneumonia especially those whose mothers have a history of chlamydial infection should be tested for C. Specimens for chlamydial testing should be collected from the nasopharynx. Tissue culture is the definitive standard diagnostic test for chlamydial pneumonia. Nonculture tests e. Tracheal aspirates and lung biopsy specimens, if collected, should be tested for C.

Because test results for chlamydia often are not available at the time that initial treatment decisions must be made, treatment for C. Because the effectiveness of erythromycin in treating pneumonia caused by C. Data on the effectiveness of azithromycin in treating chlamydial pneumonia are limited. Follow-up of infants is recommended to determine whether the pneumonia has resolved, although some infants with chlamydial pneumonia continue to have abnormal pulmonary function tests later in childhood.

Mothers of infants who have chlamydia pneumonia and the sex partners of these women should be evaluated, tested, and presumptively treated for chlamydia.

Neonates born to mothers who have untreated chlamydia are at high risk for infection; however, prophylactic antibiotic treatment is not indicated, as the efficacy of such treatment is unknown. Infants should be monitored to ensure appropriate treatment if symptoms develop. Sexual abuse must be considered a cause of chlamydial infection in infants and children. However, perinatally transmitted C.

Data also are lacking regarding use of NAAT for specimens from extragenital sites rectum and pharynx in boys and girls ; other nonculture tests e. Culture is still the preferred method for detection of urogenital C.

Oral antibiotic for chlamydia

Oral antibiotic for chlamydia

Oral antibiotic for chlamydia