As a consequence, it is primarily used in screening of new chemical entities NCEs and also used as a vehicle in delivery of molecules encapsulated in micelles or micro-emulsions. Its physicochemical and application relevant characteristics are attributed to a unique structure comprised of hydroxystearic acid lipophilic moiety and polyethylene glycol hydrophilic moiety. Thus, the effort continues to bring these molecules to pipeline for development in oral and parenteral formulations. Due to its unique solubilization characteristics and safety profiles, this excipient has also been used in ophthalmic, suppository, macromolecule and protein formulations. It enables an efficient drug loading into its hydrophobic interiors and generates a thermodynamically stable, highly concentrated system, a pre-requisite for longer systemic circulation, faster absorption and enhancement of bioavailability.
A prospective study of peripherally inserted central catheter PICC episodes reported an overall complication rate of Oral versus IV treatment for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Figure 1. Although bacteriostatic against Staphylococcus, linezolid is bactericidal against Streptococcus. Create privacy if possible.
Extreme ass fucking preggos free. Clinical Features
Administration methods directly into the stomach include those by gastric feeding tube or gastrostomy. The route or course the active substance takes from application location to the location where it has its target Sensitife is usually rather a matter of pharmacokinetics concerning the processes of uptake, distribution, and elimination of drugs. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. He has lost an enormous amount weight. Inhaled medications can be absorbed quickly and act both locally and systemically. Parenteral administration can results in local effect Baby bag diaper trend drugs when desired. The healthy growth and development of ti fetus depend on a steady supply of nutrients from the mother. As the drug is delivered to the site of action extremely rapidly with IV injection, there is a risk of overdose if the dose Sensitive to oral and parenteral line been calculated incorrectly, and there is an increased risk of side effects if the drug is administered too rapidly. Institute For Safe Medication Practices. Enteral feeding delivers liquid nutrition through a catheter inserted directly into the gastrointestinal GI tract. Some infants may be sensitive to even small amounts of alfacalcidol, parejteral, calcitriol, dihydrotachysterol, Senzitive ergocalciferol.
Find an ACG member gastroenterologist with a specialized interest in liver disease.
- Parenteral drug delivery, especially intravenous injection, can gain easy access to the systemic circulation with complete drug absorption and therefore reach the site of drug action Rapidly.
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- A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug , fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
Patient information: See related handout on osteomyelitis , written by the authors of this article. The incidence of chronic osteomyelitis is increasing because of the prevalence of predisposing conditions such as diabetes mellitus and peripheral vascular disease. The increased availability of sensitive imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy, has improved diagnostic accuracy and the ability to characterize the infection.
Plain radiography is a useful initial investigation to identify alternative diagnoses and potential complications. Direct sampling of the wound for culture and antimicrobial sensitivity is essential to target treatment. The increased incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis complicates antibiotic selection. Surgical debridement is usually necessary in chronic cases.
The recurrence rate remains high despite surgical intervention and long-term antibiotic therapy. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children typically can be treated with a four-week course of antibiotics. In adults, the duration of antibiotic treatment for chronic osteomyelitis is typically several weeks longer. In both situations, however, empiric antibiotic coverage for S. Osteomyelitis is generally categorized as acute or chronic based on histopathologic findings, rather than duration of the infection.
Acute osteomyelitis is associated with inflammatory bone changes caused by pathogenic bacteria, and symptoms typically present within two weeks after infection.
Necrotic bone is present in chronic osteomyelitis, and symptoms may not occur until six weeks after the onset of infection. The preferred diagnostic criterion for osteomyelitis is a positive bacterial culture from bone biopsy in the setting of bone necrosis.
Magnetic resonance imaging is as sensitive as and more specific than bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis.
Parenteral followed by oral antibiotic therapy is as effective as long-term parenteral therapy for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in adults. The most common pathogens in osteomyelitis depend on the patient's age. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of acute and chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis in adults and children.
Group A streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae , and Kingella kingae are the next most common pathogens in children. Group B streptococcal infection occurs primarily in newborns. Increasingly, methicillin-resistant S. In some studies, MRSA accounted for more than one-third of staphylococcal isolates. Fungal and mycobacterial infections have been reported in patients with osteomyelitis, but these are uncommon and are generally found in patients with impaired immune function. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis results from bacteremic seeding of bone.
Children are most often affected because the metaphyseal growing regions of the long bones are highly vascular and susceptible to even minor trauma. More than one-half of cases of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children occur in patients younger than five years. Chronic osteomyelitis is generally secondary to open fractures, bacteremia, or contiguous soft issue infection.
The incidence of significant infection within three months after an open fracture has been reported to be as high as 27 percent. Hematogenous osteomyelitis is much less common in adults than in children. It typically involves the vertebrae, but can occur in the long bones, pelvis, or clavicle. Patients with vertebral osteomyelitis often have underlying medical conditions e. Chronic osteomyelitis from contiguous soft tissue infection is becoming more common because of the increasing prevalence of diabetic foot infections and peripheral vascular disease.
Up to one-half of patients with diabetes develop peripheral neuropathy, which may reduce their awareness of wounds and increase the risk of unrecognized infections. These conditions may act synergistically to significantly increase the risk of osteomyelitis in these patients.
Clinical symptoms of osteomyelitis can be nonspecific and difficult to recognize. They include chronic pain, persistent sinus tract or wound drainage, poor wound healing, malaise, and sometimes fever.
Acute osteomyelitis in children is primarily a clinical diagnosis based on the rapid onset and localization of symptoms. Systemic symptoms such as fever, lethargy, and irritability may be present.
The physical examination should focus on identifying common findings, such as erythema, soft tissue swelling or joint effusion, decreased joint range of motion, and bony tenderness.
The identification of a bacterial infection may be difficult because blood cultures are positive in only about one-half of cases. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis in adults can be difficult. A high index of clinical suspicion is required, along with recognition of clinical symptoms and supportive laboratory and imaging studies Table 1. The physical examination should focus on locating a possible nidus of infection, assessing peripheral vascular and sensory function, and exploring any ulcers for the presence of bone.
If a contiguous infection with ulcer is present, such as in diabetic foot infections, the use of a sterile steel probe to detect bone may be helpful in confirming the presence of osteomyelitis. Although a study found that this test had a positive predictive value of 89 percent, 18 a more recent study in a population with a lower prevalence of osteomyelitis found a positive predictive value of only 57 percent.
Imaging studies e. Exposed bone. Persistent sinus tract. Tissue necrosis overlying bone. Chronic wound overlying surgical hardware.
Chronic wound overlying fracture. Positive blood cultures. Elevated C-reactive protein level. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. If osteomyelitis is suspected, a bone biopsy with bacterial culture should be considered for definitive diagnosis.
Information from reference Useful to distinguish between soft tissue and bone infection, and to determine extent of infection; less useful in locations of surgical hardware because of image distortion. Low specificity, especially if patient has had recent trauma or surgery; useful to differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and in patients in whom magnetic resonance imaging is contraindicated.
Information from references 24 through Laboratory investigations can be helpful, but generally lack specificity for osteomyelitis. Leukocytosis and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels may be present. These inflammatory markers are especially likely to be elevated in children with acute osteomyelitis. A persistently normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level virtually rule out osteomyelitis.
Microbial cultures are essential in the diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis. The preferred diagnostic criteria for osteomyelitis are a positive culture from bone biopsy and histopathology consistent with necrosis.
Positive blood cultures may obviate the need for a bone biopsy, especially when they are combined with substantial clinical or radiographic evidence of osteomyelitis. Superficial wound cultures do not contribute significantly to the diagnosis of osteomyelitis; the organisms identified by such cultures correspond with bone biopsy culture results in only about one-third of cases. Specific cultures or microbiologic testing may be required for suspected pathogens.
Imaging is useful to characterize the infection and to rule out other potential causes of symptoms. Plain radiography, technetium bone scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging MRI are the most useful modalities Table 2 24 — Plain radiography usually does not show abnormalities caused by osteomyelitis until about two weeks after the initial infection, when nearly 50 percent of the bone mineral content has been lost. Plain radiography is a useful first step that may reveal other diagnoses, such as metastases or osteoporotic fractures.
It generally complements information provided by other modalities and should not be omitted, even if more advanced imaging is planned. Plain radiograph showing osteomyelitis of the distal fourth metatarsal and distal third and fourth phalanges arrows. Cortical disruption and osteolysis are present. The role of computed tomography in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis is limited.
Although computed tomography is superior to MRI in detecting necrotic fragments of bone, its overall value is generally less than that of other imaging modalities. Computed tomography should be used only to determine the extent of bony destruction especially in the spine , to guide biopsies, or in patients with contraindications to MRI.
MRI provides better information for early detection of osteomyelitis than do other imaging modalities Figure 2. MRI can detect osteomyelitis within three to five days of disease onset. Magnetic resonance image demonstrating abnormal T1-weighted signal within the calcaneus long arrow , consistent with osteomyelitis.
Inferior cortical disruption and contiguous soft tissue fluid and edema are also present short arrow. Nuclear imaging can be helpful in diagnosing osteomyelitis Figure 3. Three-phase technetium bone scintigraphy and leukocyte scintigraphy are usually positive within a few days of the onset of symptoms. Leukocyte scintigraphy also has poor specificity, but when combined with three-phase bone scintigraphy, sensitivity and specificity are improved.
Bone scintigraphy images demonstrating localized increased radioactive tracer uptake within the left calcaneus, consistent with osteomyelitis. Other imaging modalities seem promising for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, but they are not routinely used.
Positron emission tomography has the highest sensitivity and specificity—more than 90 percent—but it is expensive and not as widely available as other modalities. Some studies suggest that in some patients, such as those with sickle cell disease, detection of subperiosteal fluid collections can be useful or even diagnostic; however, reliable estimates of sensitivity and specificity are lacking. Treatment of osteomyelitis depends on appropriate antibiotic therapy and often requires surgical removal of infected and necrotic tissue.
Choice of antibiotic therapy should be determined by culture and susceptibility results, if possible Table 3. False-negative blood or biopsy cultures are common in patients who have begun antibiotic therapy.
If clinically possible, delaying antibiotics is recommended until microbial culture and sensitivity results are available. Indications for surgery include antibiotic failure, infected surgical hardware, and chronic osteomyelitis with necrotic bone and soft tissue. Enterobacteriaceae e. Fluoroquinolone e. Cefepime, 2 g IV every 8 to 12 hours, plus ciprofloxacin, mg IV every 8 to 12 hours.
For patients allergic to vancomycin: Linezolid Zyvox , mg IV every 12 hours.
Hyman, Robert C. Get updates. The J-tube is a feeding tube that is surgically placed in the jejunum, which is the middle segment of the small intestine. Perivascular medical devices and drug delivery systems: Making the right choices. A brief ove Note that depending on the number of suggestions we receive, this can take anywhere from a few hours to a few days.
Sensitive to oral and parenteral line. Recommended
Feeding operations and care necessarily vary from case to case. Why does there need to be 2 different syringes? I understand the 2 methods would require very different doses; but why a different syringe?
To answer your question as best as I could, I would say that a feeding tube will prolong his life, but only enough for him to not die of inadequate nutrition which can cause worse heart problems, more weight loss, etc.
It will not give him an abundance of energy. The amounts titrated will only be enough to sustain life. In addition, surgery is only needed if his mouth, nose, and throat are inaccessible.
If they aren't, he will he a nasal tube that's placed in 15 minutes without surgery. If he is not eating currently, it will provide additional calories and energy into him.
However if he is eating, they could and should offer to provide nutritional supplements for increased calorie intake. You should know this is a surgery that has discomfort and risks associated with it. He has lost an enormous amount weight. His doctors have said he has reached zero quality life, he has no interests and exists from one day to the next. He is a permanent resident in a nursing facility.
His condition has come to the point that I can no longer care for him at home. His dialysis clinic wants to try this procedure in order to give him more energy and maybe put some weight on. I want someone who will answer my questions honestly. Is this something that will give him quality life or just prolong the life he currently has?
Someone please answer my questions honestly! I am tired of watching him suffer. I hope your friend feels better soon. We found great information and support by contacting the Oley Foundation and the patient information section of the American Society for Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition A.
They both have extensive websites. Good Luck! Thanks for any info! Post your comments Post Anonymously Please enter the code:. One of our editors will review your suggestion and make changes if warranted. Note that depending on the number of suggestions we receive, this can take anywhere from a few hours to a few days.
Thank you for helping to improve wiseGEEK! View slideshow of images above. Watch the Did-You-Know slideshow. Follow wiseGEEK. Did You Know? This Day in History. Particulars of Enteral Delivery Enteral nutrition is usually the easiest to deliver, and all it usually requires is a feeding tube.
Administration and Duration In many cases people can return to normal eating after they regain their strength and take on enough calories, but some patients continue to need tube feeding for a long time.
You might also Like. What is a PEG Tube? What is Enteral Feeding? Parenteral administration can be performed by injection , that is, using a needle usually a hypodermic needle and a syringe ,  or by the insertion of an indwelling catheter.
The definition of the topical route of administration sometimes states that both the application location and the pharmacodynamic effect thereof is local. In other cases, topical is defined as applied to a localized area of the body or to the surface of a body part regardless of the location of the effect.
If defined strictly as having local effect, the topical route of administration can also include enteral administration of medications that are poorly absorbable by the gastrointestinal tract.
One poorly absorbable antibiotic is vancomycin , which is recommended by mouth as a treatment for severe Clostridium difficile colitis. In acute situations, in emergency medicine and intensive care medicine , drugs are most often given intravenously.
This is the most reliable route, as in acutely ill patients the absorption of substances from the tissues and from the digestive tract can often be unpredictable due to altered blood flow or bowel motility.
Enteral routes are generally the most convenient for the patient, as no punctures or sterile procedures are necessary. Enteral medications are therefore often preferred in the treatment of chronic disease. However, some drugs can not be used enterally because their absorption in the digestive tract is low or unpredictable. Transdermal administration is a comfortable alternative; there are, however, only a few drug preparations that are suitable for transdermal administration. Identical drugs can produce different results depending on the route of administration.
For example, some drugs are not significantly absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract and their action after enteral administration is therefore different from that after parenteral administration.
This can be illustrated by the action of naloxone Narcan , an antagonist of opiates such as morphine. Naloxone counteracts opiate action in the central nervous system when given intravenously and is therefore used in the treatment of opiate overdose.
The same drug, when swallowed, acts exclusively on the bowels; it is here used to treat constipation under opiate pain therapy and does not affect the pain-reducing effect of the opiate.
The oral route is generally the most convenient and costs the least. Biopharmaceuticals have to be given by injection or infusion. However, recent research found an organic ionic liquid suitable for oral insulin delivery a biopharmaceutical into the blood stream.
Oral administration is often denoted "PO" from "per os", the Latin for "by mouth". By delivering drugs almost directly to the site of action, the risk of systemic side effects is reduced. Inhaled medications can be absorbed quickly and act both locally and systemically. Some medications can have an unpleasant taste or irritate the mouth.
Inhalation by smoking a substance is likely the most rapid way to deliver drugs to the brain, as the substance travels directly to the brain without being diluted in the systemic circulation.
Parenteral administration generally acts more rapidly than topical or enteral administration, with onset of action often occurring in 15—30 seconds for IV, 10—20 minutes for IM and 15—30 minutes for SC. Disadvantages of injections include potential pain or discomfort for the patient and the requirement of trained staff using aseptic techniques for administration.
As the drug is delivered to the site of action extremely rapidly with IV injection, there is a risk of overdose if the dose has been calculated incorrectly, and there is an increased risk of side effects if the drug is administered too rapidly. Neural drug delivery is the next step beyond the basic addition of growth factors to nerve guidance conduits.
Drug delivery systems allow the rate of growth factor release to be regulated over time, which is critical for creating an environment more closely representative of in vivo development environments. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Parenteral. Main article: Topical medication. Main article: Oral administration. Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved Pediatric conscious sedation utilizing enteral methods oral, rectal, sublingual ".
Support Care Cancer. Clin Pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacokinet. Absorption rate and bioavailability of phenobarbital and its sodium salt from rectal dosage forms". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Comparative biopharmaceutics of diazepam after single rectal, oral, intramuscular and intravenous administration in man".
Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 14 April Cambridge dictionary. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. Journal of Neuro-Oncology. Fenway Community Health. Fenway Health.
As a consequence, it is primarily used in screening of new chemical entities NCEs and also used as a vehicle in delivery of molecules encapsulated in micelles or micro-emulsions. Its physicochemical and application relevant characteristics are attributed to a unique structure comprised of hydroxystearic acid lipophilic moiety and polyethylene glycol hydrophilic moiety. Thus, the effort continues to bring these molecules to pipeline for development in oral and parenteral formulations.
Due to its unique solubilization characteristics and safety profiles, this excipient has also been used in ophthalmic, suppository, macromolecule and protein formulations. It enables an efficient drug loading into its hydrophobic interiors and generates a thermodynamically stable, highly concentrated system, a pre-requisite for longer systemic circulation, faster absorption and enhancement of bioavailability.
Subscribe to our e-Newsletters Stay up to date with the latest news, articles, and events. Plus, get special offers from American Pharmaceutical Review — all delivered right to your inbox! Sign up now! There are innumerable publications describing its use in different drug formulations and technologies.
This review will focus mainly on chemistry and applications in oral and parenteral drug formulations. The regulatory and toxicological information with future perspectives will also be discussed in this review.
This is due, in part, to the structural complexity of ethoxylated fatty acid derivatives and because of challenges to separate and identify each of the individual components in the product itself and even more complex in drug formulations due to presence the of many other excipients together.
To address this, Janet et al. The total free PEG component was estimated to be The lipophilic and hydrophilic components were also analyzed by gel permeation chromatography GPC , a method that used an isocratic condition to estimate the major and minor components by Coon et.
The GPC method, however, lacked the quantitative determination of the minor pegylated fatty acid components. In aqueous solutions, however, it spontaneously forms micelles which helps encapsulation and increases solubility, an attribute dependent on the solubilizer concentration. The difference in hydrophobicity between a fatty acid and the PEG moiety is much larger than between a polypropylene glycol and a polyethylene glycol moiety.
For example, Yin et al. The critical micelle concentration is 0. Depending on the type of poorly soluble actives and their concentration the number of active molecules per micelle varied between 22 and , as shown in Table 2.
This study provides a deeper insight into the structure of non-loaded and drugloaded micelles. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems SEDDS have been a subject of continued interest, due, in part, to faster development of new chemical entities to market as compared to other solid dispersion and micronization technologies. The smaller particles created by using the larger amount of the lipid surfactants and cosurfactants in turn help the rapid absorption and enhancement of bioavailability.
Patel et al. The faster dissolution of lumefantrine was attributed to a reduction in droplet size and a greater surface area of the self nano-emulsifying LF-OA ionic complex. Selection of the appropriate solubilizers, cosolubilizers and oils is important to design an effective oral drug delivery system with controlled particle size, polydispersity, and zeta potential. Li and Zhao and Sapra et al. Sadurni et al. Heshmati et al.
Zhou et al. Particle size reduction is important in aiding the absorption and bioavailability but it also improves the safety of APIs as well as minimizes the adverse effects by avoiding excessive dosing. Benbrook et al. At higher dose, however, it accumulated in the lower GI tract resulting in the reduced systemic absorption or poor bioavailability. Menon et al.
These pellets showed a sluggish release and did not perform well. Other groups also used solid matrices like Neusilin US2 and mesoporous silica, and developed the s-SEDDS with aims to increase solubility and enhance bioavailability of drugs. The bioavailability of valsartan in rats was improved 1. Other solid matrices have also been evaluated in lyophilized matrices.
For example, Li et al. The pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed and the bioavailability of the drug improved over 1. The dissolution efficiency varied for each binary formulation and was dependent upon the ratios of API and polymeric carrier. The dissolution enhancement rate of the drug with increased flowability was presumably due to particle size reduction of binary powder blends as compared to untreated drug.
The improved oral bioavailability was caused by marked improvement in the solubility of CyA in microemulsion as compared to micronized suspension ca. For example, Cui et al et al. Lipid nanocapsules, solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructure lipid carriers.
Chauvet et al. This stealth protection is important for longer systemic circulation of a drug as it gets carried through for delivery into the specific tissues or site.
The particle size of LNC ca. Lipid-based nanocarriers NLCs were prepared by hot solvent diffusion method by dissolving castor oil, tristearin, and lecithin in organic solvents followed by homogenization of solution containing 0. Because of their excellent safety in oral and injectable formulations, and mildness to skin, the SLN and NLC have also been investigated in the topical drug delivery.
Lipid based self-emulsifying and solid dispersion technologies are competing technologies for increasing solubility and enhancing bioavailability of the same poorly soluble molecules. The choice of the excipients though is different for each technology, and may vary depending upon the formulation and dosage requirements, and the API per se. Each dosage though requires different excipient compositions in the individual formulations and technologies, both SMEDDS and ASD dosages possess similar pharmacokinetics profiles.
Ryoo et al. It is also worth noting that the free propofol, if left non-encapsulated in micro-emulsion caused bearable pain following IV injection but its severity was wide spread in twice larger population as compared to medium-chain or large-chain triglyceride based propofol treated IV micro-emulsion formulation. A few other propofol IV micro-emulsions are in clinical stages of development.
The patients were monitored for heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and peripheral oxygen saturation. Thus, the overexpression of P gp provides a protective function in blood brain barrier, colon, pancreas, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract, more specifically, it prevents the accumulation of xenobiotics and metabolites in the brain.
In addition, the overexpression of P gp is highly prevalent in the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The data clearly indicates that the solubilizers tested had a very different impact on Pgp inhibition ranging from no eff ect to a strong one. In contrast most of the poloxamers except poloxamer did not exert a strong action, even not at higher concentrations.
In general, the lipid based surfactants were more potent regarding Pgp inhibition than poloxamers. Such inhibitory activity is apparently critical for explaining the permeation of drugs via endocytosis and, hence, the efficacy thereafter. A, Caco-2 and Calu-3 , with an aim to deliver or transport the biologic drugs via mucous membrane. Huo et al. In another unrelated study, Lin et al. In a study Bartels et al. The optimized oleic acid ester with 20 mole ethylene oxide or PEG , e. Thus, the attempts have been to minimize the leaching and extraction of additives from the package liner.
Cheung et al. The leaching ability increased linearly as the solutions in the IV bags were exposed to longer periods at similar concentrations and usage conditions. This is not surprising since poloxamer has a much lower solubilization capacity which counts also for extraction of lipophilic plasticizers.
In this regard poloxamer in general due to its compatibility with the plasticizers in PVC IV bags, should be more suitable which may accelerate the usage of poloxamer as a stabilizer downstream in injectable IV and infusion formulations, and as a shear protector in the upstream cell culture. It is also listed in the inactive ingredient database IID. Histamine release in dogs as the most sensitive animal is a general side-effect of solubilizers with a high amphiphilicity and solubilization capacity.
The bioavailability of drug following dosing p. These findings were critical in assessing the clinical studies of SR in humans. Reid et al. It also demonstrates that the safety of this excipient is well studied which had helped attain the recognition for freely usages in many approved marketed drug products globally for both in humans and animals as well. Other applications also continue to take heed such as in biologics by virtues of its structural compatibility with a wide range of lipid and non-lipid based surfactants and solubilizers and polymers alike and with macromolecule APIs such as peptides, nucleic acids and biologics.
His areas of expertise include the controlled release, solid dispersions, lipid based emulsifying systems, liposome drug delivery, and film development technology. He is the editor-in-chief of Journal Analytical and Pharmaceutical Research and serves as a member of the editorial advisory board of several pharmaceutical journals including the American Pharmaceutical Review.
He has published over 45 articles in the scientific journals and is the inventor of 14 US patents. He obtained his Ph. He has published more than articles and posters, and is the inventor of 90 patents. Keep up with our latest articles, news and events. Plus, get special offers and more delivered to your inbox. Monday, February 25, Shaukat Ali. Karl Kolter. Follow APR. Connect with Us. Related Categories.