Sex change surgery in thailand-Gender reassignment surgery, SRS, FFS, transgender surgery in Thailand

We are committed to provide utmost satisfaction to our valued customer at a competitive price without compromising quality. AtRealteamclinic and Central Park Hospital. Our team is dedicated to help you. We guarantee the highest quality customer servive. We take pridw in responding to your particular needs and in providing you the best possible advice, clear and accurate information about our services.

Sex change surgery in thailand

Sex change surgery in thailand

Sex change surgery in thailand

Diagnosed as gender identity disorder, or gender dysphoria. An expertise of Dr. This can also be used in patients who have never undergone sex reassignment surgery. The patient must have continuously taken female hormone for at least one year. Other cosmetic surgical procedures represent a deeper dive into transitioning such as breast implants or buttocks implants. Your Message. HARG Program.

Bikini pull. Gender reassignment surgery - get mentor and advisor free of charge. Pay only hospital fee

Many transgender today want to have sex change to truly feel free and confident. Sometimes it happens after removing the urinary catheter. In general, this symptom will improve on the 1st and 2nd postoperatively. The vagina has a natural lubricant. Sex change is part of a treatment for gender disorder for transgender and transsexual. High Profile Color j bras in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico offers complete treatment solutions in aesthetic nose surgery surgerry otolaryngology with best results in domestic and international patients. In open technique, a scar can be visible at the bikini line, just above the left Sex change surgery in thailand of the pubis. It will be removed on the day of open wound. However, our hospital regards to safety that centers on patients first principle. On the third day after the surgery, patient may lie on her side. However, the tissues will need to settle within the first months and the incision lines can take up to two years to mature. The male urinary tract is shortened and shaped so that urine can flow out in the same manner as women. A new vagina is formed between the anus Sex change surgery in thailand the urinary tract, approximately inches deep. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of the PlacidWay. The average operation time is thailanc hours.

This paper reviews the development of gender reassignment in Thailand during the period of —, in terms of social attitude, epidemiology, surgical patients' profile, law and regulation, religion, and patients' path from psychiatric assessment to surgery.

  • Sex Reassignment Surgery is the final step in the process of assisting people who have experienced conflicts between their sexual perceptions and their physical characteristics since birth, which in medical terminology is Gender Dysphoria.
  • For a number of well-deserved reasons, Thailand is now the medical tourism capital of the world.
  • Bangkok Thailand is the undisputed leader of high quality Gender Reassignment surgeries for decades.
  • Many transgender today wanted to have sex change to truly feel free and confident.
  • Many transgender today want to have sex change to truly feel free and confident.
  • .

This paper reviews the development of gender reassignment in Thailand during the period of —, in terms of social attitude, epidemiology, surgical patients' profile, law and regulation, religion, and patients' path from psychiatric assessment to surgery. Thailand healthcare for transsexual patients is described. Figures related to the number of sex reassignment surgeries performed in Thailand over the past 30 years are reported. Transsexual individuals are only apparently integrated within the Thail society: the law system of Thailand in fact, does not guarantee to transsexuals the same rights as in other Western countries; the governmental healthcare does not offer free treatments for transsexual patients.

Currently, in Thailand, there are 6 major private groups performing sex reassignment surgery, and mostly performing surgery to patients coming from abroad. Particularly, the largest of these Preecha's group has performed nearly vaginoplasties for male-to-female transsexuals in the last 30 years. A comparative study of international centers performing GRS has been previously published [ 1 ].

This survey reported on the standards and policies used in by 19 clinics located in Europe and North America. The overall goal of the SOC is to provide clinical guidance for health professionals to assist transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people with safe and effective pathways to achieve lasting personal comfort and to maximize their overall healthcare.

This assistance may include primary care, gynecological and urological care, reproductive options, voice and communication therapy, mental health services, and hormonal and surgical therapy. Usually, the patient is referred from the General Practitioner GP to a mental health professional with a special interest in GD and eventually to a physician who can prescribe hormonal therapy.

After a minimum of 12 months of continuous experience of living in an identity-congruent gender role under the control of the mental health professional and a minimum of 12 months of hormonal therapy, with a confirmed diagnosis of GD, the transsexual patient is referred for genital surgery [ 2 ].

At the end of the gender reassignment, patients still need to be provided with health assistance for life, to monitor the general health conditions and the surgical outcomes. Preecha Tiewtranon and Dr. At that time, the society had negative thinking about the transsexual patients and the surgical procedure [ 7 ]. Previously, no paper has reported on the past and present social and health care provided to transsexual patients in Thailand.

The scope of this paper is to review the development of sex reassignment in Thailand during the period of — in terms of epidemiology, religion and social attitude, law and regulations, surgical patients' profile, and patients' path from psychiatric assessment to surgery. We were not able to find any other studies describing the development of sex reassignment surgery in other cultures or countries. Particularly, in The Netherlands the prevalence of people wishing to receive hormonal or surgical therapy because of the incongruent gender identity is 0.

Another study from the University of Singapore showed that the transsexuals number in this island is Finally, the unpublished studies from Winter [ 13 , 14 ] are calculating a prevalence of 0.

Currently, the Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, is in the process of granting a study and collecting data on the prevalence of transsexualism in Thailand. Since it is possible to observe and find transsexual people in any public place such as school, universities, and any working place, a much higher incidence of transsexualism in Thailand is expected, compared to the data reported in the world literature.

Winter and Udomsak have already published an overview on the position of Thailand transsexual within the Buddhist religion and society [ 15 ].

As in other South-East Asian societies, nonnormative gender categories form part of the indigenous cultural tradition [ 16 ], with the common belief until the beginning of last century of the existence of three sexes: male, female, and male-female [ 17 ]. Today, the terms transgender and transsexual are seldom used in Thailand. Instead, Kathoey , a word originally used todenote hermaphrodites is used today to describe a male-to-female transsexual [ 18 ]. Unlike Christians, Buddhists cannot point to specific religious laws or teachings forbidding homosexuality, transsexuals, or gay marriage.

One of the fundamental teachings of Buddhism is tolerance of those who act differently or hold different views. At first blush, this tolerance if not acceptance would seem to extend to transsexuals in Thailand. Transsexuals, in fact, are integrated into everyday life, and physical or verbal assault on transsexuals in public is extremely rare [ 17 ]. Again, Buddhism may play a role.

While the Buddhist focus on tolerance does in part shape Thailand society's tolerant view of transsexuals, the Buddhist principle of karma may provide an alternative explanation: Thai people believe that people are born kathoey because they are being punished on this life of their misdemeanor of a previous one [ 17 , 19 ]. Therefore, they are a group to be pitied, not protected. In the past, in fact, the Thai society had negative thinking about the transsexual individuals and the surgical procedure; particularly, the Thai society disliked patients' appearance and their overacting manners; furthermore, transsexual people were considered to have low education and no taste and were believed to work mainly in the sex industry [ 20 ].

Thai people also believed that the result of the surgery was not good, giving lots of complications [ 20 ]. It was not long ago December [ 15 ] when a transsexual student enrolled in an education program at a public university murdered a female friend; in response to this, another well-known higher education institution in charge of Thailand's teaching universities banned transgender and homosexual students from attending their teacher training facilities.

This argument was simply keeping in line with the Department of Mental Health, which at the time considered homosexuality a mental disorder.

Subsequent pressure from both Thai and Western gay rights groups soon forced a repeal of the ban. Up to day, kathoey have become so prominent a part of modern Thai culture that the authorities have taken steps to reduce their profile, for example, making it more difficult for them to work as teachers or tour guides and advising television stations to curb MTF appearance on shows [ 15 ].

According to a study by Dr. Winter, Hong Kong University students showed a marked male antipathy towards male gender variance [ 21 ]. At the opposite, more recently, several transsexual individuals became successful in their careers, especially in the entertainment and mass media industry such as the actors, singers, reporters, and even models.

Transsexual beauty pageants, such as Miss Tiffany's Universe and Miss Alcazar, are held in Thailand and televised nationally each year. Today, Thailand appears to live up to its worldwide reputation as a place where transsexuals can experience greater freedom and acceptance than in other nations.

Particularly, transsexuals' appearance and manners seem to the Thai population much more similar to the way ladies are acting and behaving. At the same time, the sex surgical conversion got more and more the reputation of being successful, both domestically and internationally. In fact, parallel to the explosion of the tourism market 90's in Thailand, more foreigners were coming to Thailand to receive sex change operations. The Thai population has been witnessing this medical tourism for the past 20 years [ 20 ].

In spite of this new Thai face, a closer look at its society and culture, however, still reveals a society with a decidedly mixed view of transsexuals [ 22 ].

Thailand legal system reflects the Thai society [ 23 ]. As far as the government of Thailand is concerned, male-to-female transsexuals are legally men. Transsexuals cannot legally change their gender on their ID cards, leading to problems with potential employers. Because of this, the vast majority is relegated to occupations traditionally held by women, that is, waitresses, hairdressers, makeup artists, and vendors, even if they are university graduates.

Transsexuals' birth gender must remain the same on their passports as well; a fact that can lead to confusion and unwanted scrutiny at border crossings and immigration checkpoints. Thailand also prohibits same sex marriage, meaning that when the partner of a transsexual dies, the deceased's family receives any or all assets [ 24 ].

In the past years, there have been some positive developments since the transsexuals and the gay community in general have achieved some legal gains. In , in fact, the Department of Mental Health, under intense pressure from the gay community, removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders.

Until , there was no definite rule to regulate gender reassignment in Thailand; nevertheless, some plastic surgeons as the authors of the present manuscript were still following the SOC as suggested by the WPATH, as for the criteria to select and treat transsexual patients. However, until , there were many cases of castrations to teenagers, performed by nonurologists and nonplastic surgeons, and this made the social and the mass media upset and panic [ 23 , 24 ].

Among the criteria, patients have to be over 20 years of age, or they can be between 18 and 20 and have consent of at least 1 guardian. Also, patients should have documents to approve their surgery from 2 different psychiatrists. In spite of the fact that the Thailand Medical Council posed regulations on the treatments of transsexual patients, Thailand Government hospitals generally do not offer free treatments psychological assessment, hormonal or surgery to transsexual patients. Most of the Thai transsexual patients do not visit the psychiatrist at the onset of the gender dysphoria: in fact, they do not believe that psychiatrists can be of any help to them, but only for signing for the diagnosis, which is allowing the surgeon to proceed with the surgery.

Further to this, the quality of the care organization offered at the psychiatrist services and other medical services in the Government hospitals is presenting with long waiting queues; finally, very few psychiatrists in Thailand are currently interested in this field, and these psychiatrists are practicing in private settings. As a consequence, most of the transsexual patients visit the psychiatrist only when they decide to get the surgery done. The hormonal treatment is a very weak point within the treatment, too: very few endocrinologists in Thailand have experience in this field, and patients prefer to listen to senior fellows of their society, accepting suggestions passed to each other as word of mouth, rather than giving their trust into endocrinologists.

As a consequence, nearly all the transsexuals use hormones, but very few of them are under the care of endocrinologists. Hormones are usually bought directly from the pharmacy; no prescription is required.

Thai transsexuals mostly start with the hormonal treatment when in secondary school years old. Some patients also add Androcur. Sex reassignment surgery is usually performed when patients are in their 20's, and at this age most of the patients have received hormonal therapy for at least 5 years. Nearly all the surgical treatments are performed privately. The Government finances surgical treatments rarely, and for teaching purposes only.

Even in these cases, surgery is not offered free of charge, but patients have to pay for some of the hospital costs. Three to four mastectomies in FTM transsexuals and 2 penile reconstructions usually metaidoioplasty, with less than 10 procedures performed in the last 20 years are also performed at CUH per year.

Thai transsexuals receiving vaginoplasty are usually followed up until 1 year postop, while foreigner transsexuals are usually receiving their last followup with their surgeon 2 weeks postop; then, they are instructed to continue their care with endocrinologists or gynecologists in their home countries.

They might come to Thailand for later followups if needed, but this is uncommon. To date, there are about 20 Thai surgeons able to perform SRS. By directly interviewing the surgeons involved in GRS in Thailand, we calculated the ratio between Thai and Foreigner patients surgeries operated in Thailand in the past years. All the above-mentioned Bangkok-based centers are included in this survey, except Yanhee.

Since , the mean age of the Thailand transsexual patients is 27 years old 17— Foreign patients resulted to have higher degrees e. Since the first Thailand's sex change surgery in , the Thai social attitude, law system, and regulations to treat transsexual patients have very much improved.

In spite of these improvements, Thai transsexual individuals are not fully integrated within the society, the law system does not guarantee to transsexuals the same rights as in other Western countries, and health treatments for gender dysphoria psychiatric assessment, hormonal and surgical treatments are not provided free of charge within the umbrella of the Government Hospitals, but these are paid by the patients themselves. On the other hand, we believe that the way Thai transsexuals appear in the media and to the Western world, the current Thailand economy allowing for surgery at a cost cheaper than in Western country, and the experience progressively achieved by Thai surgeons over the past 30 years contributed to an increasing number of foreign patients coming and receiving gender reassignment surgery in Thailand.

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List ScientificWorldJournal v. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Received Feb 9; Accepted Mar 4. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract This paper reviews the development of gender reassignment in Thailand during the period of —, in terms of social attitude, epidemiology, surgical patients' profile, law and regulation, religion, and patients' path from psychiatric assessment to surgery. Introduction A comparative study of international centers performing GRS has been previously published [ 1 ]. Law and Regulations 4. Law and Society Thailand legal system reflects the Thai society [ 23 ].

Regulations for the Treatment of Gender Reassignment Until , there was no definite rule to regulate gender reassignment in Thailand; nevertheless, some plastic surgeons as the authors of the present manuscript were still following the SOC as suggested by the WPATH, as for the criteria to select and treat transsexual patients.

The core of the penis is removed, and the sexual sensory nerves are kept for use in creating the clitoris. How Do I Get Started? Package includes. The sigmoid colon is harvested through the 4 small incisions by laparoscopic technique as the pedicle flap with the neurovascular bundle. The disadvantage is that is not suitable for those who have deficient skin. The medical team is dedicated to the field of aesthetic plastic surgery, performing all the procedures with modern equipment, care and commitment. Advantages: 1.

Sex change surgery in thailand

Sex change surgery in thailand

Sex change surgery in thailand

Sex change surgery in thailand

Sex change surgery in thailand

Sex change surgery in thailand. Types of Treatments Available

.

Bloomberg - Are you a robot?

We are committed to provide utmost satisfaction to our valued customer at a competitive price without compromising quality. AtRealteamclinic and Central Park Hospital. Our team is dedicated to help you. We guarantee the highest quality customer servive.

We take pridw in responding to your particular needs and in providing you the best possible advice, clear and accurate information about our services. Sex reassignment surgery SRS is known by a variety of names, including gender reassignment surgery GRS , sex change surgery, sex affirmation procedures, and genital reconstruction surgery.

These procedures, which are known clinically as genitoplasty procedures, are done to surgically change the genitalia from one gender to another. For most patients undergoing SRS, the surgery is performed in order to match their physical gender with what they feel emotionally and intuitively is their true gender. This condition, known as gender dysphoria or gender identity disorder, is rare but becoming more widely diagnosed.

Dressings have been applied; we will be replaced a few days. Sutures will be removed within a week of surgery. Although the surgeon has made every effort to keep scars as inconspicuous as possible, they are the inevitable result of surgery. Minimal swelling and discoloration of the breasts will disappear rapidly. The decision on when to return to work and normal activities depends on how fast you heal and how you fee.

To permit proper healing, you should avoid over activity and refrain from overhead lifting. Customer service In Thailand. Day 6 — Discharge from Hospital Day 6 to 13 — Stay in hotel for recovery period and follow up on doctor appointment. We return you to the airport at the end of your stay. You may also have guests stay in your private room at sofa bed no charge. Prior to admission to , and discharge from hospital, patients stay in local hotel accommodation.

This is only for surgery fees. Hotels are not charged for international transaction fee. Realteam clinic or Central park hospital can issue the letter to clarify with your local Embassy or Passport. All travellers to Thailand must have a valid passport, which would remain valid for 6 months after the date of entry into Thailand. Please present the supporting documents confirming the scheduled operation upon request.

Please do not carry any unnecessary drugs or dangerous objects in your luggage. Nothing on this webpage is meant, or should be interpreted to mean, that transgender people or anyone else should attempt to circumvent security or deceive security personnel in any way.

It is meant only to provide tips to transgender people who may otherwise be subjected to unfair or embarrassing selective scrutiny or treatment. All passengers 18 years of age or older are required to provide proof of identity at check-in and at the security checkpoint.

Because we believe no one can work best in all kinds. Therefore, at Realteam Clinic, Dr. After surgery, during the rest in the room, patient will feel to pee as urination all the time. Because of the doctors often place urinary tract, as a result, patient may feel want to pee always.

Because of the balloon in the bladder. The urine can flow into the urine bag normally. Urinary feel is better in 2 — 3 days. In general, catheter and lymph drainage lines will be placed about 4 — 6 days. It will be removed on the day of open wound. On surgery and postoperative days, there may be nausea and vomiting. After recovering from anesthesia, eat liquid food and mild food.

On days 2 — 5 after surgery can eat plain food. In general, it is recommended to avoid foods such as milk and fruit. Because after surgery does not require frequent defecation. It may be infected with surgery. After the surgery, the gauze will be re-inserted into the vagina, this is for graph and skin in the vagina attached to the vaginal cavity created. Generally, gauze is placed in the vaginal cavity.

This gauze is located at the anus and press the anus. During the first and second postoperative period, there is no need for defecation, with no faeces in the anus. In general, this symptom will improve on the 1st and 2nd postoperatively. And after the bandage and gauze out on the 4th or 6th may be pain, defecation will disappear altogether. In general, after 3 days, anal feces are started. Can be defecated in the bathroom or on the bed. But after defecation. Good in cleaning. It may cause an infection.

In general, use fecal paper from front to back. To prevent stools in the front. The urine will be removed with the wound dressing on day 5. After removing the urinary catheter and wound dressing, lie down over the knee and stretch the legs for about 30 minutes to stop the bleeding. Then go to the toilet in the urine. The first urine to full urination. In general, the urine does not. It can be caused by two factors: blood stains and blood streaks that block the exit of the urethra.

And swelling of tissue around the urethra. In case the urinary catheter is removed. Can not urinate normally.

Urinary catheter may be required for another weeks. During the second urinary catheter, the patient does not need to stay in the hospital. Can urine catheter back to home.

If urine is to open the urinary catheter at times. Sometimes it happens after removing the urinary catheter.

Swelling around the urethra. Remedies performed by the urinary catheter for another 3 — 7 days, until the swelling gone, so it can remove urinary catheter and urinary tract. Your Name required. Your Email required. Your Message. Skip to content. WHY US? Medical illustration. RealTeam Clinic. Sex reassignment surgery in Thailand. We are committed to provide utmost satisfaction to our valued customer at a competitive price without compromising quality 4.

Free Consult, Planning and all Service during you stay in Thailand Sex reassignment surgery SRS is known by a variety of names, including gender reassignment surgery GRS , sex change surgery, sex affirmation procedures, and genital reconstruction surgery.

There are 2 main surgeries. How do I select SRS best for my body? Male to Female Sex Reassignment Surgery mtf surgery cost :. Qualify letter from Psychiatrist doctor or Hormone Therapist No Aspirin at least 2 weeks before surgery. Stop vitamin E Oil 1 day before surgery. Stop smoking 2 days and a month after surgery.

Stop Hormone, if taken 2 weeks before surgery date Tell doctor if you have any serious medical condition s. Stop meal and water starting from midnight before surgery. Plan to be in Thailand at least 14 days after or at least 15 days Before and after surgery.

In so do, the clitoris will be functional in sensation as well as in appearance. Healing process may occur for weeks or even months following surgery. Dilation will be given an instruction during follow up visits. Treatment after surgery for SRS, More instruction will be given after surgery: After release from hospital you will recover with the aid of liaison at the hotel. During recovery in the hotel, you must follow instructions including: Dilating is the most important thing you can do to ensure the success of your surgery.

If you do not dilate responsibly, this can result in the shortening of depth and width of the newly made vagina because of the scar contracture. Failure to dilate properly can result in serious injury.

Sex change surgery in thailand

Sex change surgery in thailand