Subjects Diseases Epidemiology Reproductive signs and symptoms Risk factors. Impaired placental function and consequent mal-perfusion of the pla S1 File. Some resort to in vitro fertilization, with mixed results. So who Shoort be providing this information? Data 4
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Browse the list below for information on trying to conceive, having a healthy pregnancy, preparing for labor and delivery, breastfeeding, healing after childbirth wlmen bringing your baby home. Can you explain what this is? When conception occurs, om body starts the production of the hormone called hCG which further increases Short articles on pregnant women need for the woman to visit the bathroom frequently. Your Name. The uneven layers with choppy ends look amazing. So many articles on pregnancy woemn, and baby care; but don't forget a moms post pregnancy rehab with the abdominal, pelvic floor, and postural muscles. I've started doing my cardio workouts again, but I can't seem to lose the excess weight around my belly. You can also follow a Hot young lesbians nude version artickes the lunch suggestions listed above! Comments are moderated by MomJunction editorial team to remove any personal, abusive, promotional, provocative or irrelevant observations. So, if you have short menstruation, without any other sign of pregnancy, a home pregnancy test as well as a blood test can help you in knowing whether you are actually pregnant or not. Any ideas? Was this information helpful?
Now that you're pregnant , taking care of yourself has never been more important.
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- It is common knowledge that pregnant women tend to crave for healthy as well as, not so healthy foods.
There are over two billion smartphone users worldwide, enabling researchers to easily and cheaply conduct extremely large-scale research studies through smartphone apps, especially among pregnant women in whom app use is exceptionally high, predominantly as an information conduit.
We developed the first pregnancy research app that is embedded within an existing, popular pregnancy app for self-management and education of expectant mothers. Through the large-scale and simplified collection of survey and sensor generated data via the app, we aim to improve our understanding of factors that promote a healthy pregnancy for both the mother and developing fetus. From the launch of this cohort study on 16 March through 17 December , we have enrolled pregnant women from all 50 states.
Our study population is diverse geographically and demographically, and fairly representative of US population averages. We have collected 14, individual surveys and , total daily measurements of sleep, activity, blood pressure, and heart rate during this time. On average, women stayed engaged in the study for 59 days and 45 percent who reached their due date filled out the final outcome survey.
During the first 9 months, we demonstrated the potential for a smartphone-based research platform to capture an ever-expanding array of longitudinal, objective, and subjective participant-generated data from a continuously growing and diverse population of pregnant women.
Historically, pregnant women, and even women of reproductive potential, have been under-represented in research, due to potential harm to the fetus. In order to explore this potential, we developed a smartphone app research platform called the Healthy Pregnancy Research Program. The overall purpose of this Program is to develop an ever-improving, user-centric platform that will serve as a global resource for the collection of a wide range of valuable longitudinal health data throughout pregnancy, and then use that data to increase the knowledge of the individual user as well as the research community to help identify the characteristics that create the healthiest pregnancy for an individual.
Out of these, self-identified that they met the inclusion criteria for the study. As participants read through the electronic Consent eConsent screens, we observed a gradual drop-off in the number of unique screen views.
The first comprehension question of the eConsent quiz was viewed by unique users. However, it is unclear how many of these unique users were simply testing out the app and the eConsent process, instead of real potential users. Out of these, an additional dropped off during the screens that gave users the option to share HealthKit data, share data with outside researchers and during the registration process that included passcode creation and email confirmation.
After removing 46 individuals who were less than 18 years old in the short intake survey, we were left with a total of participants in our study population Fig. Consort diagram of participant enrollment, 16 March —17 December Participants can choose to fill out the intake survey, health history survey, and weekly survey in any order. Currently, we have enrolled participants from all U. Supplementary Fig. We enrolled more women in the 30—39 year age group and less in the 20—29 year age group compared to national averages for pregnant women.
Although we have enrolled fewer participants from some racial minorities compared to US averages, the percentage of non-White participants was very close to national averages Table 1.
We found that our study population was engaged by the study surveys, with Currently, we have collected , total daily HealthKit measurements, with 81, days of step measurements, 11, days of sleep measurements, 13, days of heart rate HR measurements, days of weight measurements, and days of BP measurements Supplementary Table 1.
Over the course of a single day, there were often tens to thousands of HR, distance and step count measurements from participants wearing a connected device such as an Apple Watch. Among participants who reached their due dates, we found that participants with singleton pregnancies filled out an average of 6 surveys over 56 days 74, total person-days of follow-up and women with twin pregnancies filled out an average of 7 surveys over 82 days 13, total person-days of follow-up.
Forty-five percent of women completed their final outcome survey, out of the women who went to full term or had an earlier outcome Fig. During the course of pregnancy, population averages of self-reported and HealthKit collected HR rose. On average women reported gaining around 13 kilograms by the end of their pregnancy, with a slower rate of weight gain during the first trimester.
Total weekly step count appeared to decline steadily during the late second and third trimester. Average sleep remained relatively stable around 7.
A larger population size will enable us to evaluate some of these trends closer by individual characteristics. Mean SD physiological changes by pregnancy week from self-reported data singleton pregnancies, 16 March to 18 December Top to bottom: heart rate, systolic blue and diastolic red blood pressure, and weight change from pre-pregnancy weight, and number of participants sharing data each week.
Top to bottom: heart rate, steps, sleep, and number of participants sharing data each week. We saw increases in participants joining and self-reporting measurements during their weekly questionnaire around the time when the overall WebMD pregnancy app had carousel cards promoting the study week 10, 16, 27, and 36 Fig.
When looking at the number of weekly surveys filled out with weight measurements, we found that women who joined around week 4—5, and 16—17, and during the last trimester were more likely to fill out surveys consistently over time and also filled out more outcome surveys Supplementary Fig.
The top ten most prescribed medications from the health history survey included drugs to treat or prevent anti-depression, thyroid deficiency, miscarriage, morning sickness, and diabetes.
The top ten most taken over the counter drugs were prenatal vitamins, and drugs for pain relief, allergy, nausea and heartburn, sleep, and probiotics. Although, the FDA is moving away from letter risk categorization of medications, 6 of the top 10 prescribed medications and 2 of the top 10 over-the-counter drugs were category C, meaning risk is not ruled out and animal reproduction studies have shown possible adverse effects in the fetus Table 2.
During the first nine months of the deployment of the Healthy Pregnancy ResearchKit app, we have enrolled over participants from 50 states, and collected over 14, individual surveys and , daily HealthKit measurements. Going forward, as we incorporate a greater number of enrollees, we plan to incorporate more novel digital devices for an even greater variety and volume of participant-generated data. Overall, we believe this app can prove to be on ongoing, ever-improving source of important insights to better understand the individual factors that create a healthy pregnancy for all women.
Over the last decade there has been a shift in how pregnant women find and share pregnancy related health information. High pregnancy app usage combined with an increasing number of people using digitally connected devices and sensors to monitor their health, allows for unique possibilities to collect and provide information that is tailored to individual consumers. These technologies also have the ability to transform research by enabling the sharing of participant-generated data in a way that is less burdensome to participants.
Since , over 1. We believe that by incorporating our study platform into a trusted app where pregnant women are already going for their information has given us high visibility and likely better long-term engagement. Efforts are underway to embed our app into other trusted digital platforms. Screenshots of the Healthy Pregnancy Study. Left to right: 1 Welcome screen 2 Why study pregnant women? We found that participants were more likely to read the detailed version of specific eConsent topics e.
In the future, giving participants who failed an eConsent question a description of why their answer was incorrect, instead of forcing them to re-do the entire eConsent process, in other words, restructuring the quiz from a summative to a formative evaluation, may improve enrollment. Additionally, identifying which questions were answered incorrectly is important for improving our understanding of where we are failing to adequately explain topics to participants and perhaps explore additional formats for eConsent presentation, such as voiceover or video.
We plan to conduct qualitative and quantitative surveys of both current and potential participants to better understand what motivates participation and retention and how to improve the design, usability, and return of information within the app.
In particular, we plan to better understand health literacy, acceptability of survey questions and sensors, and the overall needs of high risk and understudied populations African American women, low income, and rural populations who are likely to benefit the most from this research. Relative to other ResearchKit studies, we have seen less attrition and a higher percentage or participants filling out the surveys.
We may also have lower drop-off because women receive other useful information through the WebMD pregnancy app and may, therefore, be less likely to delete it and withdraw from the study. In order to improve long-term engagement, it will be necessary to continuously refine the return of useful information to participants.
Certain participant characteristics seem to influence their likelihood of participating. Women also joined our study on average at gestational week Finding ways to encourage women to join earlier will allow us to collect important data that may help us identify signs of early complications. Overall, higher engagement among certain sub-populations or during certain times of pregnancy may be a result of heightened concern or increased questions during these times or for these groups.
These groups may be more motivated to be part of a research study with the hope of answering their questions or improving their particular condition. Traditional clinic-based studies have often lacked participant diversity due to participation challenges such as lack of access to care centers that typically refer people to research studies, time constraints for participation, difficulties with transportation to research sites, lack of child care while participating, and limited participation hours.
By conducting an app-based research study that takes limited time, and can be done anywhere and at any time, we have helped overcome some of these challenges, which has likely increased our overall participant diversity. However, we believe that through continued refinement of the recruitment strategies, app design, usability, and return of information, we will be able to further improve the apps penetration to high risk and under-represented groups.
One current limitation is our study is only available in iOS and iPhones are still relatively expensive, therefore, potentially biasing our study population to higher-income individuals socioeconomic data was not collected. Future expansion to Android phones and HTML is also essential and will enable us to access a much wider and varied user population in the US and eventually, globally. As the availability of an increasing variety of wireless, connected sensors grows, we anticipate including the automated daily or even more frequent collection of multiple parameters known to be germane to pregnancy such as BP, HR, activity, sleep, stress, nutrition, and glucose levels.
We can also assess the impact of new digital platforms and home-based sensors at improving positive behavior change to improve health. In addition to conducting research, a primary future objective of this study is to help women meaningfully interpret and understand their personal data through visualizations, risk profiles, and comparisons to other individuals like them.
Ultimately, this will make for more informed decisions for pregnant women when it comes to things from medication choices, to healthy weight gain and ideal sleep during pregnancy. Future evaluation of how to best aggregate and share this data with clinicians in a manner that is useful and not burdensome is also necessary. In summary, we aim to use our app-based research platform to help fill in many knowledge gaps that exist for pregnancy, ranging from individualized weight gain recommendations to earlier identification of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, peripartum depression, and other complications.
These data may inform both improved population-based public health interventions and individualized care that will ultimately help create healthier pregnancies. ResearchKit is an open-source framework for building research apps, created by Apple Apple Inc. Data collected include maternal weight change, blood pressure BP , medication usage, symptoms, diagnoses such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, as well as birth outcomes, primarily through participant-reported surveys.
The majority of HealthKit data is likely automatically uploaded from sensors; however, it is possible that some of the HealthKit data is also self-reported and manually entered. At this time, our app does not identify how the HealthKit data was collected. Currently, activity, weight and BP data is plotted in a graph so that participants can see how their individual data changes throughout their pregnancy.
Participants also have the option to download their study data and have it emailed to them by clicking on a button in the app. This data can then be shared with their health care provider. The study was also registered on ClinicalTrials. Any pregnant person, 18 years or older, who lives in the US and is comfortable reading and writing on their iPhone in English is eligible to join our study.
After self-identifying that they qualify for the study, potential participants self-navigate an eConsent that includes 17 screens highlighting key consent topics ranging from data sharing and data privacy, to potential risks.
The consent process is entirely self-guided and self-administered, with no in-person steps. If a potential participant has questions regarding the eConsent, they are given the contact information of the study coordinator and Institutional Review Board. After completing the eConsent, participants must correctly answer four questions that test their comprehension of core study topics in order to join the study.
Those who do not answer correctly are directed to the beginning of the eConsent process.
Comments Marisa Some not verified Thu, Permalink. Pregnancy is not the ideal time to use any styling products like tongs, hairsprays, gels and other cosmetics, as they can lead to unwarranted complications. How is it diagnosed and treated? Q: I've just entered my second trimester and my doctor is concerned that I've already gained too much weight. Get your hair into a pony and leave some hair strands loose on one side of your head. Was this information helpful?
Short articles on pregnant women. Best Pregnancy Hairstyles You Can Try:
Give advice on women's health concerns. Normally, for most women, periods last for days every month. The blood flow during these days is not the same for every woman. While some women experience very light periods, there are women who suffer heavy blood flow, along with severe menstrual cramps throughout the day. However, what happens when a person who usually has very heavy periods, at least for five days, has very light periods, which stops just after two days? When such a thing happens most people consider it to be a sign of pregnancy.
Though this is true to some extent, there are other reasons that can cause very short menstruation. Let us take a look at the reasons that can cause the periods to stop abruptly. Reasons for Short Menstrual Cycle. One of the reasons that can cause short menstruation is the ingestion of birth control pills. There are many women who have observed that taking pills for a long time, make their periods lighter as well as shorter over time. Apart from this, one of the main factors that causes periods to stop much earlier, is stress.
Women who are going through emotional, mental, or physical stress and tension may observe a slight change in their periods, i. Another reason that can cause this problem is the presence of any disease or health problem. Women who have been suffering from some chronic illness may experience the problem of short menstruation. Also, taking some kind of medicines or drugs for a long time can also be the cause of this problem. Other than that, women who are closer to their menopause stage may have irregular periods, sometimes comprising heavy flow, and sometimes comprising lighter flow which stop after a day or two.
Though the above mentioned factors are plausible reasons for the occurrence of a short menstruation, one cannot rule out the possibility of pregnancy. If you have had unprotected sex weeks before your period, the possibility of pregnancy is high. However, it is a known fact that when a woman is pregnant, she does not have her periods. Then, how can we explain this short menstruation? Actually, many women suffer from implantation bleeding, which occurs when the fertilized egg attaches itself to the uterus.
The discharge that is caused due to implantation is actually just spotting, which is pink or brown in color, and does not last for more than days. So, if you have had a short menstruation, you will have to check for other symptoms of pregnancy to know for sure. Let us take a look at some of the common signs that many women experience during early pregnancy.
One of the most common pregnancy symptoms is fatigue or tiredness. As the hormone level is quite high during pregnancy, it is likely for a woman to feel tired and exhausted without doing any work. Another factor that can indicate pregnancy is frequent urination. When conception occurs, the body starts the production of the hormone called hCG which further increases the need for the woman to visit the bathroom frequently.
One of the earliest pregnancy signs is breast tenderness. It has been observed that during the initial few weeks of pregnancy, a woman's breasts are likely to become sore, and the areola area around the nipples become darker and larger. Another sign of being pregnant is morning sickness which is accompanied by the feeling of nausea and vomiting, not only in the morning, but also throughout the day.
This can be accompanied by headache and dizziness. Q: I'm 32 years old and have been diagnosed with endometriosis, which is interfering with my ability to get pregnant. I've been reading about the influence of free radicals in endometriosis. Can you explain what this is? Q: I was diagnosed with endometriosis and would now like to get pregnant. What are my chances?
Can I prevent a bed-rest recommendation from my obstetrician? Q: Is amniocentesis my only screening option? I've heard it's risky Q: During my upcoming amniocentesis I would like to have amniotic fluid collected for banking.
What can I expect? Will this affect my procedure or have any bearing on my test results? Q: I'm entering my second trimester and want to start exercising.
I'm a fairly fit and very healthy person but hadn't been exercising prior to becoming pregnant. Is it OK to start an exercise program now? Q: I'll be pregnant during flu season, and I'm worried about having the flu vaccine. Is it safe? Q: I've just entered my second trimester and my doctor is concerned that I've already gained too much weight.
How can I eat well and give my baby all the nutrients it needs without adding on too much extra weight? And, please don't ask me to give up dessert! Q: Since I've gotten pregnant, I've heard a lot about gestational diabetes.
Can you tell me what the risk factors are for this condition? Are there any preventive measures I can take? Q: What does an eating plan for a pregnant woman look like? Q: What are the three most important dietary changes I should make during my pregnancy? Q: What is gestational diabetes? How is it diagnosed and treated? I was breastfeeding my month-old boy and weaned him several weeks ago. Now I am experiencing some pain in my right breast, as if it were clogged.
What can I do to take care of this problem? Q: Can I feed my baby breast milk and have my husband and mother feed him formula when I'm at work?
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